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Mr. James M. Boughton

Abstract

The world and the IMF have undergone profound changes since the Bretton Woods Conference. James Boughton, former historian of the IMF, looks at key events that have shaped the IMF and the international scene. From the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 to the Great Recession, this essay focuses on 11 events in history that have influenced the design and work of the IMF, as well as the international monetary system. This booklet, prepared for the 70th anniversary of the IMF, is an excerpt from a longer essay that is available on the IMF eLibrary. It is an excellent primer on the motivation behind the founding of the IMF and the evolution of the organization.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper reports the second event organized by the Per Jacobsson Foundation in 2008 that took place on Sunday, October 12, in the auditorium of the International Finance Corporation in Washington, DC, in the context of the Annual Meetings of the IMF and the World Bank. From time to time—usually every two years—an additional event is organized in conjunction with the Bank for International Settlements and held in the context of its Annual General Meeting in Switzerland. The Per Jacobsson Foundation was established in 1964 to commemorate the work of Per Jacobsson, the third Managing Director of the IMF (1956–1963) and prior to that, the head of the Monetary and Economic Department of the Bank for International Settlements (1931–1956). The main purposes of the Foundation are to foster and stimulate discussion of international monetary problems, to support basic research in this field, and to disseminate the results of these activities.

Mr. James Daniel

Abstract

Este folleto (que actualiza las Directrices de 1995 para el ajuste fiscal) presenta el enfoque del FMI con respecto al ajuste fiscal, y se centra en la importancia de la solidez de las finanzas públicas para promover la estabilidad macroeconómica y el crecimiento. Está estructurado en torno a cinco preguntas prácticas: cuándo realizar un ajuste, cómo evaluar la situación fiscal, cuáles son los factores que determinan el éxito del ajuste, cómo realizar el ajuste y qué instituciones facilitan el ajuste. Aborda temas tales como las políticas tributarias, la sostenibilidad de la deuda, las leyes de responsabilidad fiscal y la transparencia.

Mr. James Daniel

Abstract

Cette brochure (qui actualise la brochure initiale de 1995, « Ajustement budgétaire : principes directeurs ») présente la démarche du FMI en matière d’ajustement budgétaire et le rôle qu’une position saine des finances publiques joue dans la recherche de la stabilité macroéconomique et de la croissance. Elle aborde des thèmes tels que la politique fiscale, la viabilité de la dette, la réglementation de la responsabilité budgétaire et la transparence. Elle est structurée autour de cinq questions : quand faut-il mettre en œuvre l’ajustement budgétaire ? Comment faut-il évaluer la position budgétaire ? Comment assurer la réussite de l’ajustement budgétaire ? Comment mettre en œuvre l’ajustement budgétaire? Comment les institutions peuvent-elles appuyer l’ajustement budgétaire ?

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

An introductory guide to the IMF, its history, and its role in the international financial system. Explains for a general audience the IMF’s lending policies, how decisions are made, and where the money comes from. Gives details of the structure of the IMF, its increasing transparency, how it provides technical assistance to member countries, its role in crisis prevention, and how it is helping the world’s poorest countries. Revised in August 2006.

Mr. James Daniel

Abstract

The pamphlet (which updates the 1995 Guidelines for Fiscal Adjustment) presents the IMF’s approach to fiscal adjustment, and focuses on the role that sound government finances play in promoting macroeconomic stability and growth. Structured around five practical questions—when to adjust, how to assess the fiscal position, what makes for successful adjustment, how to carry out adjustment, and which institutions can help—it covers topics such as tax policies, debt sustainability, fiscal responsibility laws, and transparency.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper discusses reasons functions of the IMF, why it needs more resources, and how these resources will be used. The IMF provides a forum for cooperation, having as its objective the balanced expansion of international trade in order to stimulate employment and improve economic conditions in its member countries. In its relations with its members, the IMF seeks to promote sound policies through advice as well as by providing technical assistance in many fields. The IMF has facilitated negotiations between debtors and creditors on the types and terms of financing agreements. It has also participated in the debt-restructuring agreements with commercial banks. The restoration of growth in developing countries is essential not only for the sake of the well-being of these countries but also in the interest of the global community. Thus, the IMF must be responsive in meeting the needs of all its members, not solely those in crisis situations. Good economic management is all-important and for this to be effective, however, it must be supported by adequate financing.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Public expenditure policy, together with efforts to raise revenue,is at the core of efficient and equitable adjustment. Public expenditureproductivity has critical implications for fiscal adjustment, particularly as the competition for limited public resources intensifies.By providing a framework for defining and analyzing public expenditureproductivity and unproductive expenditures, this pamphlet discusseshow economic policymakers may approach these issues.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

L'auteur, cadre de haut niveau au FMI pendant 20 ans, s'intéresse d'abord au système des quotes-parts et des votes au sein du FMI et conclut à la nécessité de réformes visant à renforcer l'équité parmi les pays membres. Il aborde ensuite le processus décisionnel au sein du conseil d'administration, en rappelant le principe de décision consensuelle au sein d'une institution favorisant la coopération, et la surveillance politique du système monétaire international par le comité intérimaire et son successeur, le comité monétaire et financier international. Dans ce contexte, l'auteur traite également des incidences des décisions du FMI sur les activités des groupes de pays membres, et des intérêts divergents des principales parties. Il rappelle ensuite les caractéristiques marquantes des crises financières des années 90 et analyse leurs implications pour la gouvernance du FMI. Le document termine sur une évaluation de la gouvernance du FMI.