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Ms. Elva Bova, Mr. Paulo A Medas, and Mr. Tigran Poghosyan
Resource-rich countries face large and persistent shocks, especially coming from volatile commodity prices. Given the severity of the shocks, it would be expected that these countries adopt countercyclical fiscal policies to help shield the domestic economy. Taking advantage of a new dataset covering 48 non-renewable commodity exporters for the period 1970-2014, we investigate whether fiscal policy does indeed play a stabilizing role. Our analysis shows that fiscal policy tends to have a procyclical bias (mainly via expenditures) and, contrary to others, we do not find evidence that this bias has declined in recent years. Adoption of fiscal rules does not seem to reduce procyclicality in a significant way, but the quality of political institutions does matter. Finally, non-commodity revenues tend to respond only to persistent changes in commodity prices.
International Monetary Fund
This Article IV Consultation reports that the main challenge is to maintain macroeconomic stability in substantial demand shock from the construction of two major liquefied natural gas projects. The global downturn had only a mild impact, as growth was supported by still strong terms of trade, a financial sector insulated from global capital markets, and an increase in public expenditure. IMF staff stressed that monetary policy needed to be focused on emerging inflation pressures and act preemptively to avoid high inflation from becoming entrenched in expectations.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This series contains practical "how-to" information for economists and includes topics such as tax policy, balance of payments statistics, external debt statistics, foreign exchange reserve management, and financial sector assessment.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This series contains practical "how-to" information for economists and includes topics such as tax policy, balance of payments statistics, external debt statistics, foreign exchange reserve management, and financial sector assessment.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This series contains practical "how-to" information for economists and includes topics such as tax policy, balance of payments statistics, external debt statistics, foreign exchange reserve management, and financial sector assessment.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Le guide sur la transparence des recettes des ressources naturelles applique les principes du code de bonnes pratiques en matière de transparence des finances publiques (« le code ») à l'ensemble spécifique de problèmes auxquels sont confrontés les pays dont une part substantielle des revenus provient de telles ressources, ainsi qu'à la nécessité de faire face à la complexité technique et à la volatilité des flux de transactions. Il présente un panorama des bonnes pratiques ou des pratiques optimales généralement admises en matière de gestion transparente des recettes dégagées des ressources naturelles. Il sert de complément au manuel du FMI sur la transparence des finances publiques. Le guide a été revu pour incorporer les changements apportés au code et pour fournir des exemples récents de bonnes pratiques appliquées dans certains pays. Il offre un cadre d'évaluation des questions soulevées plus spécialement par les ressources naturelles dans les évaluations générales de la transparence des finances publiques (y compris les RONC). Ce guide est utilisé par les administrations des pays riches en ressources naturelles, la société civile, les prestataires d'appui technique et les chercheurs et observateurs intéressés par ces questions.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

La Guía sobre la transparencia del ingreso proveniente de los recursos naturales aplica los principios de la edición revisada del Código del FMI de buenas prácticas de transparencia fiscal ("el Código") al conjunto singular de problemas de transparencia que se les plantean a los países que obtienen una proporción considerable de sus ingresos públicos de los recursos naturales y que deben hacer frente a flujos de transacciones complejos y volátiles. En la Guía se identifican y explican buenas prácticas, o prácticas óptimas, de aceptación general en materia de transparencia en la gestión de los ingresos derivados de los recursos naturales. Esta Guía complementa el Manual de transparencia fiscal del FMI. La Guía se ha revisado para adaptarla al nuevo Código y proporciona ejemplos más recientes de buenas prácticas seguidas por países específicos. Se ha diseñado con el propósito de ofrecer un marco para evaluar cuestiones específicas relacionadas con los recursos naturales en el contexto de las evaluaciones generales de la transparencia fiscal (incluidos los "módulos fiscales" de los informes sobre la observancia de códigos y normas). La Guía es utilizada por autoridades del poder ejecutivo y legislativo de países ricos en recursos naturales, organizaciones de la sociedad civil, entidades que proporcionan respaldo técnico, profesionales del ámbito académico y otros observadores interesados.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Guide on Resource Revenue Transparency applies the principles of the revised IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency (‘the Code’) to the unique set of transparency problems faced by countries that derive a significant share of their revenues from natural resources and need to address complex and volatile transaction flows. The Guide identifies and explains generally recognized good or best practices for transparency of resource revenue management. It supplements the IMF Manual on Fiscal Transparency. The Guide has been revised to reflect the new Code and to provide more recent examples of good practice by individual countries. It is designed to give a framework for assessing resource-specific issues within broader fiscal transparency assessments (including so-called ‘fiscal ROSCs’). The Guide has been used by the governments and legislatures of resource-rich countries, civil societies, providers of technical support, and interested academics and observers.

International Monetary Fund
The Guide, which is a companion document to the IMF’s Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency (2007), has been revised to reflect the new Code and to provide more recent examples of good practice by individual countries The Guide applies the good practices of the Code to the unique set of transparency issues faced by countries that derive a significant share of revenues from natural resources. It addresses issues arising both from the sheer size and volatility of such resources and the technical complexity of the transaction flows. The Guide supplements the Manual on Fiscal Transparency (2007).
International Monetary Fund
This guide gives a framework that covers the resource-specific issues to be considered in a fiscal transparency assessment, for example as part of a fiscal Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSCs). Equally importantly, it provides a summary overview of generally recognized good or best practices for transparency of resource revenue management that can be used by countries themselves, as well as by the IMF, the World Bank, and others providing technical support.