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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Ecuador’s Second and Third Reviews Under the Extended Fund Facility Arrangement and Request for a Waiver of NonObservance and Modifications of Performance Criteria. The Ecuadorian authorities have continued to make progress in strengthening the country’s fiscal and external positions and have appropriately recalibrated their economic program to include a more moderate fiscal consolidation and international reserves’ paths in response to recent developments and to protect pro-poor growth and social spending. Public financial management reforms are paramount to secure fiscal sustainability in the longer term. The reform of the central bank aimed at strengthening central bank autonomy, accountability, and governance will be instrumental in supporting the dollarization regime, boosting reserves, and ensuring their prudent management. Efforts to raise competitiveness should continue to focus on improving transparency, strengthening governance, increasing efficiency of the public sector, and creating conditions in the labor market to facilitate hiring and female participation.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
A 36-month EFF with access of SDR 3.035 billion (435 percent of quota or about US$4.204 billion) was approved on March 11, 2019. Economic activity is projected to decelerate further in 2019 as fiscal consolidation and a slowdown in credit growth weigh on economic growth. However, external financing conditions have improved on the back of rising oil prices and the approval of the IMF program, with sovereign bond spreads falling by 250 basis points since January 1, 2019.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Article IV Consultation discusses that declining oil prices, US dollar appreciation, and limited access to international financing have worsened the fiscal, economic, and financial outlook. The focus of discussions was that despite the weak prospects there are still downside risks in the event that oil prices fall again, external financing becomes even more constrained, or confidence in the economy and the banking system begins to weaken. In the financial system, the main concern resides in a short-term risk of liquidity shortfalls, but credit quality concerns dominate over the medium term. The authorities’ policy response to the imbalances has been timely but still insufficient given the size of the shocks, the urgent nature of the vulnerabilities, and reduced foreign currency reserves. Real GDP is expected to contract significantly this year and next. In order to prevent liquidity risks in the financial system, the authorities should limit recourse to domestic financing and, as necessary, assist in a timely way banks that develop liquidity or capital shortfalls, as well as enhance crisis preparedness and contingency planning.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Ecuador’s 2019 Article IV Consultation and Request for an Extended Arrangement under the Extended Fund Facility. The Article IV discussions focused on diagnosing the nature of the imbalances facing Ecuador and the policy changes that will be needed to address them. There was broad agreement that fundamental supply-side efforts will be needed to foster competitiveness, create jobs, rebuild institutions, and make Ecuador a more attractive destination for private investment. Consistent with the findings of the Article IV, the authorities’ policy plan seeks to decisively address the systemic vulnerabilities facing Ecuador. The goals of these policies are to boost competitiveness and job creation, protect the poor and most vulnerable, fortify the institutional foundations for dollarization, and to improve transparency and good governance to public sector operations while strengthening the fight against corruption. The report suggests that improving the social safety net and increasing the effectiveness of public spending, particularly on health and education, will be essential to achieving strong, sustained, and socially equitable growth.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Ecuador’s Request for Purchase Under the Rapid Financing Instrument (RFI). The Ecuadoran authorities are requesting financial assistance under the IMF’s RFI to address the urgent balance of payments (BOP) needs associated with emergency and reconstruction efforts. Given the urgency of their request, they are not currently in a position to implement a full-fledged upper-credit-tranche program, and they believe they can make suitable adjustments to manage their medium-term BOP challenges. Given the nature of the emergency, the IMF staff supports the authorities’ request for a purchase under the RFI.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that since the fourth quarter of 2014, the economy of Ecuador has been hit by external shocks and is slowing down. The sharp decline in the international oil price, by about half for the Ecuadorian mix, significantly undercut oil revenues. In addition, competitiveness is being eroded by the real appreciation of the exchange rate. In the face of the economic slowdown, bank liquidity conditions have tightened, credit growth has slowed, and nonperforming loans have risen. Despite the slowdown, inflation is picking up. Owing to the shocks and expected adjustment, the economy is projected to contract somewhat in 2015, while the external position deteriorates.
International Monetary Fund
Output growth, inflation, and the external current account balance are the major economic developments discussed in this study. The macroeconomic framework was modified to reflect recent information. The reforms in the banking system are helpful in completing the process of dealing with the failed banks. The authorities are contacting international financial experts to manage the debt reductions. Finally, the central government will need to be vigilant in implementing its challenging financing program. The program contains several prior actions to complete the first review.
Mr. Theodore M. Barnhill and Mr. George Kopits
Unlike conventional fiscal sustainability assessments, the Value-at-Risk approach developed in this paper explicitly captures the contribution of key risk variables to public sector vulnerability. In an illustrative application to Ecuador, the VaR approach confirms a significant risk of government financial failure stemming from the volatility and comovements of the exchange rate, interest rates, oil prices, and output. Although dollarization has helped attenuate fiscal vulnerability, the volatility of sovereign spreads and of oil prices remain major sources of risk for Ecuador's public sector. The paper concludes with a discussion of policy implications, an evaluation of the methodology, and suggestions for future research.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el desarrollo sostenible y de qué manera el FMI procura promover el desarrollo sostenible a través de su asesoramiento sobre políticas? ¿Qué lecciones se han extraído hasta ahora y de qué manera los gobiernos, la comunidad internacional y las instituciones financieras internacionales pueden respaldar mejor el desarrollo sostenible?

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

La politique budgétaire influe sur le développement durable par les effets qu'elle exerce sur la croissance économique, sur l'environnement et sur la mise en valeur des ressources. Quelles sont les relations entre la politique budgétaire et le développement durable, et comment le FMI s'efforce-t-il de promouvoir le développement durable dans ses recommandations ? Quel est le bilan de l'expérience acquise à ce jour, et par quels moyens les pouvoirs publics, la communauté internationale et les institutions financières internationales peuvent-ils promouvoir plus efficacement le développement durable ?