This Annual Progress Report reviews the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and Economic and Social Plan for 2007 for Mozambique. The report presents the new simplified structure adopted in the Review of the First Half of 2007. In the international context, the evolution of the international economy is presented, which allows a visualization of the international economic conditions in which the country has implemented its economic and social policy. The activities of the environment and the science and technology sectors are also described.
'Global Governance: Who's in Charge?' examines the challenges—financial, health, environmental, and trade—facing the international community in the 21st century and asks whether today';s system of global governance is equipped to cope with them. The lead article asserts that the system that served as a model for much of the 20th century is out of date, and it explores what needs to be done to strengthen it. Other articles on this theme look at the recent U.S. subprime market crisis, the differences between financial crises of the 19th and 20th centuries and what future crises will look like, the need for a stronger system of multilateral trade, and how global health threats can be handled. 'People in Economics' profiles Michael Kremer; 'Picture This' describes the changing aid landscape; 'Country Focus' spotlights the United Arab Emirates; and 'Straight Talk' examines the impact of high food prices. Also in this issue, articles examine development in Africa, and 'backcasting' data in Latin America.
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) on the Republic of Mozambique review the country’s macroeconomic, structural, and social policies in support of growth and poverty reduction, and external financing needs and major sources of financing. It is essential to guarantee that mechanisms of democratization are present within the political parties and to develop participative democracy. Monitoring and evaluation is also a means of keeping abreast of not only the government, but also organizations in civil society, the Mozambican legislature, and the cooperation partners.
Using available data on the distribution of HIV/AIDS prevalence across population groups for four sub-Saharan African countries and transposing this information to household income and expenditure surveys, we simulate the impact of HIV/AIDS on poverty and inequality. We find that the epidemic lowers average income and increases poverty, and that the jump in poverty is larger than expected from the fall in average income. This disproportionate increase in poverty reflects the large share of the population living on the threshold of poverty and the higher HIV prevalence rates in those segments of the population.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes unemployment and education in Namibia. Using the Afrobarometer Project survey data, the paper develops some stylized facts about the Namibian labor market, focusing on the link between education, earnings, and unemployment. The paper finds that unemployment probabilities depend on the level of education. The paper also describes the main features of poverty in Namibia and assesses the appropriateness of current as well as potential policies to alleviate poverty and reduce income inequality over time.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes recent trends in poverty and social indicators for Zimbabwe. It discusses land reform, agricultural policies, and the outcomes. The paper presents background information on the evolution of inflation and money aggregates in Zimbabwe. It analyzes the demand of money since the late 1990s, and discusses factors that can lead to diverging paths of inflation and money growth in the short term. The paper also analyzes Zimbabwe’s export performance in recent years, and identifies the factors that could improve export performance, from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective.
This paper reviews Mozambique’s economic and social plan for 2003. It presents the actions that have been taken to improve the current planning instrument. The paper outlines the social and demographic profile of Mozambique and reviews the extent to which the current strategy for the reduction of absolute poverty in the country is meeting its aims. Results are presented in terms of changes in the welfare indicators, and the extent to which Mozambique is on course to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
David E. Bloom, David Canning, and Dean T. Jamison
This paper presents a snapshot of changes in the world’s health and demographic conditions. The paper highlights that in most parts of the world, individuals are healthier and living longer, thanks to improved health services and living conditions and the more widespread use of immunization, antibiotics, and better contraceptives. Although this trend is likely to continue, hopes are fading in some regions where progress slowed or stopped in the 1990s, primarily as a result of the AIDS epidemic. Moreover, most regions of the developing world will not reach the Millennium Development Goals for health by 2015.
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) has been prepared in a context of major political changes. Interim PRSP has come in the midst of a difficult economic situation, marked by falling output and incomes. The strategy seeks to strengthen the processes of consolidating peace and security; rehabilitating victims of the crisis; and rebuilding and reviving the economy. The PRSP places particular emphasis on monitoring and evaluating poverty reduction activities. Formulation and implementation of an appropriate decentralization policy will contribute to the success of the PRSP process.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The past 150 years have witnessed a global transformation in human health that has enabled people to live longer, healthier, more productive lives and boosted rates of economic growth worldwide. While these trends look likely to continue, progress slowed or stopped in the 1990s in some regions, primarily as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. On April 5, David Canning, a professor of economics and international health at Harvard University; Markus Haacker, a senior economist with the UN Economic Commission for Africa; and Dean Jamison, a fellow with the U.S. National Institutes of Health, examined the links between health, wealth, and human welfare. Abdoulaye Bio-Tchané, Director of the IMF’s African Department, moderated the discussion.