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Mr. Jorge A Chan-Lau, Cheng Hoon Lim, Jose Daniel Rodríguez-Delgado, Mr. Bennett W Sutton, and Melesse Tashu
This paper suggests a novel approach to assess corporate sector solvency risk. The approach uses a Bottom-Up Default Analysis that projects probabilities of default of individual firms conditional on macroeconomic conditions and financial risk factors. This allows a direct macro-financial link to assessing corporate performance and facilitates what-if scenarios. When extended with credit portfolio techniques, the approach can also assess the aggregate impact of changes in firm solvency risk on creditor banks’ capital buffers under different macroeconomic scenarios. As an illustration, we apply this approach to the corporate sector of the five largest economies in Latin America.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper examines the role of lower oil prices in the recent deterioration in Nigeria’s macroeconomic indicators, the impact on corporate and financial sector performance. and the forward-looking aspects of promoting job-intensive growth and strengthening state and local government finances. Although the slump in oil prices contributed to sluggish growth, the lack of foreign exchange weakened corporate performance, setting the stage for nonperforming loans. Structural reforms to improve the business environment can have a positive impact on growth, while fiscal reforms would help strengthen finances of subnational governments.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note discusses the findings and recommendations made in the Financial Sector Assessment Program for Ireland in the areas of nonbank sector stability. Both nonparametric and parametric methods suggest that the residential real estate market in Ireland is close to or moderately below its equilibrium level. Two standard metrics of price-to-income and price-to-rent ratios show that following a protracted period of overvaluation prior to the crisis and a correction afterward, the market has been close to its equilibrium level in recent quarters. Households have deleveraged, but are still highly indebted. The stability analysis results also suggest that vulnerabilities among nonfinancial firms have moderated in recent years.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper presents an assessment of the monetary policy stance and broad financial conditions in Colombia, which provides insights about macro-financial linkages. It also discusses how nonfinancial corporate debt and leverage have increased in recent years, supported by easy access to capital markets, abundant global liquidity, and low interest rates. While some sectors look somewhat more strained than others (oil, gas, and airlines), debt servicing capacity has also improved with recent economic growth. This paper explores three possible drivers of inflation dynamics in Colombia: exchange rate pass-through, the El Niño meteorological phenomenon, and wages. The Colombian peso depreciated in line with the decline in oil prices, pushing up tradable-goods inflation.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses a few selected issues of the Nigerian economy—options and strategies for a fiscal rule for oil wealth management, enhancing the effectiveness of monetary policy, and recent developments and prospects of capital flow. Despite its diversified economy, Nigeria’s fiscal policy is heavily dependent on the oil sector. This paper explores options for a formalized rule-based approach to setting a “depoliticized” budget oil price. Two boom-and-bust episodes since early 2000 have highlighted the challenges in the current monetary policy framework. Nigeria has also been characterized by sizable capital outflows, which have diminished recently.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper discusses the assessment of economic activity in Togo in absence of quarterly GDP series. Togo collects about 40 macroeconomic indicators monthly that span a wide range of sectors of the economy. The selection of the variables for the economic activity index is conducted by finding the combination of variables. The indicators are aggregated into an index using a methodology used by the Conference Board. Then an economic activity index is constructed that effectively replicates the historical growth rates of real GDP in Togo. The selected index minimizes the deviations between the growth rates of the indicator and actual real GDP growth over 2002–13.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper discusses Morocco’s Ex Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2012 Precautionary and Liquidity Line (PLL) Arrangement. The Ex Post Evaluation confirms that the 2012–14 PLL arrangement was consistent with the PLL qualification standards and requirements under the exceptional access policy at the time of the PLL arrangement request in August 2012 and at the subsequent reviews. The authorities’ policies helped maintain macroeconomic stability and reduce fiscal and external vulnerabilities, despite unfavorable external developments. It is observed that despite the significant macroeconomic achievements under the 2012–14 PLL arrangement, a number of policy challenges remained to be fully addressed.