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This volume contains seven chapters that consider how fiscal policies can address women’s and girls’ disadvantages in education, health, employment, and financial well-being. Researchers from a joint collaboration between the International Monetary Fund and the UK’s Department for International Development presented papers at a 2016 international conference on gender budgeting at the International Monetary Fund headquarters in Washington, DC, and detail the findings of their work here, which draws on published materials, a questionnaire sent to ministries of finance to all International Monetary Fund member countries, and interviews with country officials and international organizations that offer technical assistance to countries seeking to implement gender budgeting. They describe key gender budgeting efforts planning, allocating, and monitoring government expenditures and taxes to address gender inequality in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and Canada, the Middle East and Central Asia, and the Pacific Islands and Caribbean.

International Monetary Fund
This review examines experience in implementing the lessons drawn in the 2011 Board paper on the Fund’s engagement with countries in post-conflict and fragile situations (more commonly referred to as fragile states (FS)) and the ensuing 2012 Guidance Note. The focus is on capacity building, Fund facilities and program design, and policy support. The review identifies scope to improve the Fund’s engagement in selected areas.
International Monetary Fund
Timor-Leste weathered the global financial crisis well and experienced healthy economic growth rates. It has made solid progress in strengthening the public financial management systems. The budget document provides comprehensive information; fiscal transparency is high. The Ministry of Finance lacks the time and capacity for adequate review of rationale, costing, and impact of public investment. Internal and external audit form the largest gaps in the present public financial management system. Buy-in and long-term commitment from development partners will be essential.
International Monetary Fund
Timor-Leste is a unitary state and has made significant progress with improving its fiscal transparency. The government has adopted a transparent, fiscally sustainable governance framework for the petroleum sector. Nonetheless, there are still many areas in which Timor-Leste diverges from the International Monetary Fund Code for clarity of roles and responsibilities, openness of the budget process, public availability of information, and guarantees of integrity. Particular attention should be paid to improvement of the systems consolidating fiscal information and enabling fiduciary responsibilities of the Ministry of Finance.
International Monetary Fund
This Article IV Consultation reports that the main challenge is to maintain macroeconomic stability in substantial demand shock from the construction of two major liquefied natural gas projects. The global downturn had only a mild impact, as growth was supported by still strong terms of trade, a financial sector insulated from global capital markets, and an increase in public expenditure. IMF staff stressed that monetary policy needed to be focused on emerging inflation pressures and act preemptively to avoid high inflation from becoming entrenched in expectations.
Jean-Luc Hélis and Ms. Teresa Daban Sanchez
This working paper overviews the challenges posed by resource revenues management and the policy prescriptions to meet them, and focuses on the Public Financial Management (PFM) framework and reforms that resource-producing countries should adopt. The paper outlines a PFM framework and reform path that take into account the institutional diversity of resource-producing countries. In the short term, the proposed reforms highlights the tools that could be implemented even where the PFM system is rather basic, while over the medium and long term they aim at converging with best international PFM practices.
International Monetary Fund
Petroleum is now by far Timor-Leste’s largest source of income. If well harnessed, Timor-Leste’s petroleum wealth offers the potential for a more prosperous future. This Selected Issues paper provides an overview of how Timor-Leste’s Petroleum Fund functions. It considers the extent of the country’s petroleum wealth, discusses the developmental challenges, and outlines key challenges ahead. The paper depicts the origins of the fund and details its operating mechanisms. It also assesses how the fund has performed to date.
International Monetary Fund
This 2009 Article IV Consultation on Timor-Leste highlights that the Timorese economy has posted high economic growth over the past two years, driven by rapid increases in government spending and a recovery in agriculture from a 2007 drought. Central government spending rose sharply in 2008, reflecting efforts to address pressing development needs and secure social cohesion. Executive Directors have welcomed the recently announced moderation in government spending. Directors have also supported the prudent approach toward widening the fund’s investment portfolio.