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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Selected Issues paper provides an overview of social safety nets (SSNs) in Pakistan and uses a frontier analysis approach to assess their efficiency in reducing poverty and inequality. SSNs in Pakistan were significantly strengthened over time but remain small against regional and emerging markets’ averages. The analysis suggests that stepping up public expenditure in SSNs is needed to alleviate still high poverty and inequality. To this end, finalizing the update of the Benazir Income Support Program beneficiaries’ database, broadening its coverage, and stepping up educational transfers is key. In parallel, continuing the energy subsidies reform would create fiscal space to strengthen SSNs and priority social spending.
International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office


This evaluation assesses the IMF’s response to the global financial and economic crisis, focusing on the period September 2008 through 2013. It assesses the IMF’s actions to help contain the crisis and navigate a global recovery, assist individual economies to cope with the impact of the crisis, and identify and warn about future risks.

International Monetary Fund
The Pakistani authorities placed a request for a nine-month extension of the Stand-By Arrangement (SBA), to get sufficient time to complete the remaining fifth and sixth reviews under the SBA. The authorities believe that extending the arrangement will provide time to complete the reform of the general sales tax, implement measures to correct the course of fiscal policy, and amend the legislative framework for the financial sector. The IMF approved the extension, and emphasized to implement the IMF-supported program in accordance with the relevant IMF policies.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper describes the technical improvement in developing countries. It highlights that developing countries have relied heavily for their industrial development upon foreign enterprises as sources of technology and management systems. The paper underscores that through direct investment or under licensing arrangements, foreign corporations have supplied a vast array of industrial products and equipment and have exercised a major role in the design and construction of processing and manufacturing facilities in newly industrializing countries.