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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper on Austria includes a targeted review of banking regulation and supervision, with a focus on topics related to the supervision of less significant institutions. The national transposition and implementation of EU directives and regulations has significantly closed some of the gaps identified in 2013. Oversight of bank loan portfolios was strengthened by guidance from the European Central Bank and European Banking Authority (EBA) concerning nonperforming loans and forborne exposures, and by EU regulation. As noted in the previous Basel Core Principles assessment, the Austrian Banking Act (BWG) and regulations do not establish an adequate framework for monitoring and addressing transactions with related parties; and the BWG does not require ex-ante approval for acquiring qualifying holdings in undertakings outside the financial sector. Although the BWG amendments strengthened the duties and responsibilities of credit institutions’ supervisory boards, operationally the role may be made more robust by increasing interaction between the supervisory board and banking supervisors.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical note on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) for the Malta summarizes the findings of a targeted review of several aspects of Malta’s progress in addressing AML/CFT vulnerabilities in the financial sector, specifically the banking sector. The report recommends that while Malta has strengthened AML/CFT requirements for banks in recent years, the implementation of AML/CFT preventive measures should be improved further. Although important milestones have been implemented by the Financial Intelligence Analysis Unit and Malta Financial Services Authority to enhance AML/CFT supervision since mid-2017, recent AML/CFT violations raise doubts as to their capacity to effectively identify and address AML/CFT compliance breaches. A multiprong strategy is needed to address these deficiencies. The focus needs to be on developing more effective AML/CFT enforcement and ensuring that banks apply appropriate preventive measures in relation to their high-risk activities and clients. AML/CFT supervision needs to more stringently evaluate banks’ risk mitigation models, ensure that customer due diligence requirements are properly followed, and apply corrective actions and sanctions when deficiencies are identified.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Assistance report on Bulgaria reviews the formalization and implementation of a comprehensive Supervisory and Review and Evaluation Process (SREP) that includes an explicit and detailed supervisory Pillar 2 capital requirement. The paper highlights that unsound banking practices or regulatory breaches cannot be compensated by complementary capital charges. Loan loss provisions and capital charges for loans created as a result of such practices cannot be created and judged on the basis of the common standards. Banking Supervision Department has developed a methodology for the combined risk assessment and subsequent definition of an additional capital requirement for credit risk. Individual outcomes of the top-down stress tests carried out by the Macroprudential Supervision and Financial Stability Directorate can make a valuable contribution to the SREP. It allows the assessment of the quality of internal control in the institution and its capacity to timely produce complete and reliable data. While capital positions globally are adequate, and soundness indicators have improved, partly as a result of the 2016 Asset Quality Review, nonperforming loans remain high in Bulgaria, with notable differences between the banks.
International Monetary Fund
Before the earthquakes of April 25 and May 12, Nepal’s macroeconomic performance was relatively strong: Growth accelerated to 5.5 percent in 2013/14, thanks largely to a favorable monsoon; Inflation had been moderating, broadly in line with developments in India, but remained high at 7 percent (y/y) in March 2015; The fiscal position in 2013/14 (mid-July 2013 to mid-July 2014) was again in surplus, on account of under-execution of spending amid solid revenue growth. As a result, public debt eased further, to 25 percent of GDP. The trend of budget under-execution continued through April 2015, indicating that a small fiscal surplus looked again likely in 2014/15. Public debt remained on a declining path; The external position remained strong. The current account surplus reached 4.6 percent of GDP in 2013/14, as remittances continued to grow rapidly, reaching a record-high 28 percent of GDP. Net of remittances, however, Nepal ran a current account deficit of 23.6 percent of GDP in 2013/14. International reserves rose to US$6.2 billion by March 2015, equal to 29 percent of GDP and covering almost eight months of prospective imports. The earthquakes are expected to cause an initial slowdown in economic activity.
International Monetary Fund
The Seventh PMR includes: (i) a discussion of progress made over the last year on the actions corresponding to four Management Implementation Plans (MIPs) that were classified as still “in progress” in the previous PMR; and (ii) an assessment of the progress made in achieving the high-level objectives in three areas directly related to those MIPs. In addition, an update on substantive issues related to five older MIPs agreed since 2007 is provided at the end of the report. Three new evaluations have been completed by the IEO since March 2014. In July and August 2015, Management issued the MIPs in response to these evaluations. Given that only a short time has passed since their completion, progress in addressing the actions contemplated in those MIPs will be discussed in the next PMR.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This article is an analysis on the restructuring banking system of the European Union. The global financial crisis created the need to restructure by immensely reflecting weaknesses in the public, households, corporate, and other financial sectors. The restructuring includes the strengthening of bank resolution tools, the activation of nonperforming loans, the maintenance of macrofinancial framework, recovery of market access, and so on. The Executive Board recommends this transition of the European Union because this paves the way to financial stability globally.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This report is an overview of the performance of the European Banking Authority (EBA) against its mandates, given economic conditions prevailing in the banking sector in the European Union (EU). Banks remain a key contributor to the EU financial and professional services industry. Outlook for the sector remains challenging as asset quality has been deteriorating. Priority should be given to increasing its supervisory convergence and quality assurance tasks; regulatory and supervisory actions; and strengthening transparency and the reliability of data.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This article summarizes the European Union’s stress testing exercises and future priorities. The 2011 solvency stress testing was marked by methodology and data. The exercise forced banks to increase the quality and quantity of capitalization. This test has many controversial issues, but the benefits of this bold approach overshadow the risks. Several stress testing exercises have filled the pages of literature; an additional stress test is reviewed here.
International Monetary Fund
This progress report provides a short update on the first year of implementation of the 2011 Triennial Surveillance Review (TSR) in line with the Managing Director’s Statement on Strengthening Surveillance of October 2011. The report does not provide a comprehensive review of surveillance—which will be done in the 2014 TSR. Instead, its purpose is to establish, at an early stage, whether the new operational priorities are being implemented, set out key areas of progress, and discuss the challenges raised in their implementation. The report also identifies areas where further efforts may need to be directed—particularly following the change to the legal framework—to ensure even implementation and delivery of effective surveillance. The report recognizes that, while some measures have been implemented over the past year, others will take more time to come to fruition.