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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Tighter macroeconomic and financial policies helped to avert a deeper crisis, and gross external reserves increased more rapidly in recent months, largely exceeding the mid-2019 target. However, reserves are still below the level appropriate for commodityexporting economies (5 months of imports) to absorb terms of trade shocks. Fiscal consolidation has been tilted towards cuts in public investment. This, together with a lack of significant progress in structural reforms, has weighed on growth which remains too low. The outlook for 2019 and beyond foresees further improvement in regional reserves assuming CEMAC countries remain committed to their program objectives and new programs with CAR and Equatorial Guinea could start around end-2019. This outlook is subject to potentially significant risks, including: a significant slowdown in global growth and associated decline in oil prices; a deterioration in the security situation in some countries; and weaker implementation of IMF-supported programs.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper highlights annual discussions on Central African Economic and Monetary Community’s (CEMAC) Common Policies in Support of Member Countries Reform Programs. Tighter macroeconomic and financial policies helped to avert a deeper crisis, and gross external reserves increased more rapidly in recent months, also helped by a stronger implementation of CEMAC foreign exchange regulations. Reforms to support a more diversified and inclusive growth, including by improving governance and the business climate, should gain momentum to make current efforts to buttress the external position of the region sustainable. The outlook for 2019 and beyond foresees further improvement in regional reserves assuming CEMAC countries remain committed to their program objectives and new programs with Cameroon, Central African Republic and Equatorial Guinea could start around end-2019.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The regional strategy has helped to avert an immediate crisis but continues to face headwinds: two countries have yet to enter financing arrangements with the Fund: regional reserves have underperformed despite higher-than-projected oil prices; the projected recovery of non-oil growth has still to materialize; and the security, social, and political context remains challenging. Consistent with the policy assurances it had provided, the BEAC has taken corrective actions, including an increase in its policy rate, to address the NFA underperformance and has made substantial progress toward finalizing by end-year the modernization of the monetary policy operational framework and the drafting of new foreign exchange regulations. A follow-up letter of support provides updated policy assurances on the NFA path. The medium-term outlook continues to see a gradual improvement in the economic and financial situation but is subject to substantial downside risks, including further delays in the approval of financial arrangements with Congo and Equatorial Guinea, lower oil prices, and tighter global financial conditions. The region continues to face daunting challenges to diversify its economy, with a poor business environment and high perception of corruption.
Mr. Mario de Zamaroczy, Mr. Vincent Fleuriet, and Mr. Jose G Gijon
This paper discusses possible reserve management approaches in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The paper looks beyond the region’s current oil crisis and proposes a new approach to international reserve management in the medium term.
Mr. Mario de Zamaroczy, Mr. Vincent Fleuriet, and Mr. Jose G Gijon
This paper discusses possible reserve management approaches in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The paper looks beyond the region’s current oil crisis and proposes a new approach to international reserve management in the medium term.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses the common policies of the member countries of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). CEMAC’s medium-term outlook remains challenging. It foresees a gradual improvement in the economic and financial situation in the region, assuming full implementation of policy commitments by CEMAC member states and regional institutions. Policies to diversify the economies by improving the business environment, including through enhanced governance and transparency, would support higher growth in the medium term. The monetary policy stance would be kept tight as needed to support external stability and reserves accumulation.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
En 2013, la croissance régionale a marqué le pas en raison d’une baisse de la production pétrolière dans la plupart des pays. La croissance du PIB devrait reprendre en 2014 grâce à la reprise de la production pétrolière et à la poursuite de la mise en œuvre des projets d’investissement public de la plupart des pays de la CEMAC. Même si la richesse pétrolière a été largement dépensée ces dernières années, la pauvreté, l’inégalité des revenus et le chômage restent élevés. Le climat des affaires reste l’un des plus difficiles d’Afrique. Le défi le plus urgent de la région consiste à mettre en œuvre des réformes structurelles en vue de promouvoir une croissance durable et inclusive tout en adoptant des politiques macroéconomiques destinées à préserver la stabilité financière, assurer une utilisation efficace des recettes pétrolières et accroître la résilience aux chocs.
Ali Alichi and Mr. Rabah Arezki
The paper provides an alternative explanation for the "resource curse" based on the income effect resulting from high government current spending in resource rich economies. Using a simple life cycle framework, we show that private investment in the non-resource sector is adversely affected if private agents expect extra government current spending financed through resource sector revenues in the future. This income channel of the resource curse is stronger for countries with lower degrees of openness and forward altruism. We empirically validate these findings by estimating non-hydrocarbon sector growth regressions using a panel of 25 oil-exporting countries over 1992-2005.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper on the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) reviews the evolution of actual and equilibrium real effective exchange rates (REER). The current level of the CEMAC REER is broadly in line with its long-term equilibrium value. The estimation approach herein is subject to certain limitations, some of which are inherent to the literature that tries to estimate the equilibrium REERs. Absolute statements about magnitudes of any possible misalignments should be avoided given the degree of model uncertainty; error bands around estimated equilibrium exchange rates may, in some cases, yield inconclusive results.