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International Monetary Fund
We document external investment positions among European Union countries at the start of the financial crisis through the creation of a new database comprising bilateral external financial asset and liabilities, excluding reserve assets and derivatives. While there are some gaps in the data, the overall coverage of reported bilateral net international investment positions (IIPs) appears satisfactory. The dataset provides a richer picture of financial linkages, enabling us to map the financing of Euro area imbalances. Creditor and debtor positions vis-à-vis the rest of the EU have tended to increase between 2000 and 2008, with capital flowing largely from wealthier to catching-up economies. This has in particular resulted in an increased interdependency among Euro Area economies.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department


This 2002 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, as well as Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles. The report highlights that the exchange rate of the Australian dollar is market determined. Licensed foreign exchange dealers may deal among themselves, with their customers, and with overseas counterparties at mutually negotiated rates for both spot and forward transactions in any currency with regard to trade- and nontrade-related transactions.

Mr. Bernard J Laurens
Many central banks around the world are gradually shifting from a system of direct controls towards the implementation of monetary policy through market-oriented instruments, including refinance facilities. This paper reviews the use of refinance instruments in a sample of industrialized countries, and discusses how central banks use them to influence short-term interest rates and to manage banks’ reserves. Some lessons are suggested for their implementation in developing countries or economies in transition.