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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper presents Bolivia’s Request for Purchase Under the Rapid Financing Instrument (RFI). Bolivia has requested a purchase under the RFI to cover the urgent balance of payments need arising from an ongoing shift in its terms of trade, slowdown in capital flows, and sudden increase in health care expenditure needs, precipitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. The IMF staff assess that Bolivia meets the eligibility requirements for the RFI. Public debt is sustainable, and Bolivia has adequate capacity to repay the IMF. The epidemic will have a substantial impact on Bolivia’s economy, constraining domestic output, reducing export demand, lowering the price of its principal exports, curtailing external financing flows, squeezing fiscal revenues, and increasing expenditures for public health and social support. In IMF staff’s view, Bolivia’s debt remains sustainable over the medium term and, while the outlook remains highly uncertain, Bolivia maintains an adequate capacity to repay the IMF. The IMF staff therefore recommend Board approval of Bolivia’s request for a purchase under the RFI of 100 percent of quota.
Mr. R. G Gelos


How has Latin America coped with external shocks and economic vulnerabilities in the aftermath of the global financial crisis? Managing Economic Volatility in Latin America looks at how the region has fared in recent years in an environment of uncertainty. It presents a collection of novel contributions on capital flows, terms of trade, and macroeconomic policy in Latin America. The rigorous expert analysis offers an up-to-date guide to many of the key economic policy questions in the region. Chapters focus on important analytical issues, including assessing reserves adequacy and current account levels. The roles of macroeconomic policies and exchange rates regimes in coping with large capital inflows are examined, as well as the effectiveness of both monetary policy and fiscal policy in dealing with economic challenges in the region.

Gustavo Adler and Mr. Nicolas E Magud
We study the history of terms-of-trade booms (during 1970–2012), with a focus on Latin America, through the prisms of a simple metric that quantifies the associated income windfall. We also document saving patterns during these episodes and propose a measure of how much of the income windfall was saved. We find that Latin America‘s terms-of-trade shocks of the last decade have not differed much in magnitude from those observed during the 1970s, but that the associated windfall have been substantially larger. While aggregate saving increased more than in past episodes, the share of the windfall saved (the marginal saving rate) seems to be lower, suggesting that greater aggregate saving reflects mainly the sheer size of the windfall rather than a greater 'effort' to save it. Finally, we find evidence that, while savings during the boom help to increase post-boom income, the composition of such savings matters. Specifically, in past episodes, savings allocated to foreign asset accumulation appear to have contributed more to post-boom income than those devoted to domestic investment.
Kristin Magnussen
Countries’ absolute and relative international reserves adequacy has recently attracted considerable attention. The analysis has however concentrated on the largest and most advanced economies. We apply various methodologies for assessing reserve adequacy in Central America, taking into account the region’s high degree of deposit dollarization. We find that reserve cover is low both in an absolute and relative sense, suggesting further reserve accumulation is an important policy option for reducing vulnerabilities.
International Monetary Fund
The Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Data Module provides an assessment of Bolivia’s macroeconomic statistics against the recommendations of the General Data Dissemination System (GDDS). The report reveals that the quality of Bolivia’s macroeconomic statistics has improved over recent years. The statistics have been broadly adequate for macroeconomic analysis and policy design and monitoring. The authorities have demonstrated a commitment to pursue plans and programs to further improve their statistics.
International Monetary Fund
Honduras’s Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes highlights Data Module, response by the authorities, and detailed assessments using the data quality assessment framework. Meeting General Data Dissemination System (GDDS) recommendations will also require disseminating production indices. To follow GDDS recommendations and facilitate eventual subscription to the Special Data Dissemination Standard, it would be important that key agencies move in the future with plans for improvement. To participate in the GDDS, the authorities would need to appoint a GDDS coordinator and commit to follow GDDS recommendations for selected data.
International Monetary Fund
Chile's overall economic performance during 1990–97 was very strong. By early 1998, Chile faced the difficult combination of a widening external current account deficit and a slowdown of capital inflows. The authorities scaled back expenditure plans and tightened monetary policy strongly to prevent a large depreciation of the currency. Executive Directors welcomed the new three-pillar framework for policies consisting of conservative, rules-based fiscal and monetary policies, greater emphasis on sound supervisory and regulatory frameworks, as well as new social policies.
International Monetary Fund
In this paper, the statistical data of macroeconomic flows, national accounts, production, and employment, combined public sector, financial sector, and external sector are presented in detail. They are listed as follows: aggregate supply and demand, the volume of mining production, mining reserves and production, consumer prices, private sector wages, operations of the central government and central administration, monetary survey, selected index rates, open market bills, summary accounts of the financial system, exports by principal products, imports by economic category, direction of trade, and so on.