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International Monetary Fund
This paper proposes that the Executive Board approve the disbursement of a second 6-month tranche of CCRT debt service relief to 28 of the 29 members, covering the period October 14, 2020 through April 13, 2021, given staff’s assessment that sufficient financial resources are available.2 In this context, the paper also provides brief updates for each beneficiary country on its policy responses to the pandemic and staff’s assessment of these policies and the use of resources freed up by debt service relief. It also provides an update on the finances of the CCRT and the fundraising efforts to secure adequate resources for grant assistance in the future. Based on grant pledges to date, resources are not sufficient to extend CCRT relief beyond the proposed second sixth-month period.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note discusses the findings and recommendations made in the Financial Sector Assessment Program for Sweden in the areas of the systemic risk oversight framework and management. To promote accountability, the law should clarify the allocation of macroprudential powers between the government and the Finansinspektionen (Financial Supervisory Authority, FI) and grant the FI a clear legal mandate for macroprudential policy, with full operational independence. The Financial Stability Council, or a similar body—excluding the Ministry of Finance—should have the legal authority to issue recommendations, preferably with a “comply or explain” approach. The law should also ensure that the Sveriges Riksbank’s expertise in financial stability analysis finds a clear institutional role in the oversight of systemic risk.
Mr. Jiaqian Chen and Mr. Francesco Columba
We analyse the effects of macroprudential and monetary policies and their interactions using an estimated dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model tailored to Sweden. Households face a ceiling on their loan-to-value ratio and must amortize their mortgages. The government grants mortgage interest payment deductions. Lending rates are affected by mortgage risk weights. We find that demand-side macroprudential measures are more effective in curbing household debt ratios than monetary policy, and they are less costly in terms of foregone consumption. A tighter macroprudential stance is also found to be welfare improving, by promoting lower consumption volatility in response to shocks, especially when using a combination of macroprudential instruments.
International Monetary Fund
The external sector assessments use a range of methods and metrics, including the External Balance Assessment approach developed by the IMF’s Research Department to estimate desirable levels of current account balances and real exchange rates (Box 3 of the 2014 Pilot External Sector Report discusses the use of this methodology). The overall assessments of external positions are based on the judgment of IMF staff drawing on the inputs provided by these model estimates and other analysis, including assessment of international reserves holdings, while taking account of relevant uncertainties. The assessments, which are multilaterally consistent, highlight the role of policies in shaping external positions.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Debt Sustainability Analysis update highlights Cambodia’s continued low debt distress rating: all debt burden indicators are projected to remain below the respective thresholds. The authorities have made progress in monitoring their potential contingent liabilities and strengthening debt management. Consistent with the Debt Management Strategy adopted in 2012, there has been progress in monitoring potential contingent liabilities, including those related to power generation and distribution projects under public-private partnerships that receive government guarantees. The latest estimates show that the total investment of all projects amounted to about $3.2 billion (about 25 percent of GDP in 2012), lower than the previous estimate of about 50 percent of GDP in 2011.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
Despite the global slowdown, Cambodia’s economy has been holding up, driven by resilient exports and tourism and a strong real estate recovery. Fiscal policy has remained anchored in rebuilding government deposits and maintaining long-term fiscal debt sustainability, while providing adequate financing for Cambodia’s vast development needs. Executive Directors identified greater mobilization of fiscal revenues imperative to rebuild government deposits, and maintained that focus should be on measures that would generate substantial additional revenue and create strong positive externalities.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews the Fund’s income position for FY 2010 and FY 2011. The paper updates projections provided at the FY 2010 midyear review and sets out related proposed decisions for the current and next financial years. The paper is structured as follows: Section II reviews the FY 2010 income position and the main changes from the midyear projections; Section III makes proposals on the disposition of FY 2010 net income, which includes the General Resources Account (GRA) net operational income and profits from the limited gold sales; Section IV discusses the FY 2011 income outlook, the margin on the rate of charge, and projected burden sharing adjustments; and Section V reviews special charges.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses a request from the Republic of Latvia for a Stand-By Arrangement. The Latvian authorities are launching a decisive economic reform program and are seeking substantial international financial assistance to quell the crisis. With international reserves falling precipitously and reserves barely covering base money, the authorities are now seeking IMF assistance under the emergency financing procedures. The proposed IMF-supported program is part of a coordinated international effort. The program is centered on maintaining Latvia’s exchange rate peg through strong domestic policies and substantial international financial assistance.
Gösta Ljungman
This paper looks at the factors that have to be considered when designing an aggregate expenditure ceiling. It is argued that expenditure ceilings are effective in promoting fiscal discipline and sustainability, but that a number of trade-offs have to be made when setting up a fiscal framework that will survive in a politically charged environment. The paper illustrates the discussion with a case study of medium-term aggregate expenditure ceilings in three countries: Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden.