This paper discusses the definition and modelling of a universal basic income (UBI). After
clarifying the debate about what a UBI is and presenting the arguments in favor and against,
an analytical approach for its assessment is proposed. The adoption of a UBI as a policy tool is
discussed with regard to the policy objectives (shaped by social preferences) it is designed to
achieve. Key design dimensions to be considered include: coverage, generosity of the
program, overall progressivity of the policy, and its financing.
The taxation of extractive industries exploiting oil, gas, or minerals is usually treated as a sovereign, national policy and administration issue.This book offers a uniquely comprehensive overview of the theory and practice involved in designing policies on the international aspects of fiscal regimes for these industries, with a particular focus on developing and emerging economies. International Taxation and the Extractive Industries addresses key topics that are not frequently covered in the literature, such as the geo-political implications of cross-border pipelines and the legal implications of mining contracts and regional financial obligations. The contributors, all of whom are leading researchers with experience of working with governments and companies on these issues, present an authoritative collection of chapters. The volume reviews international tax rules, covering both developments in the G20-OECD project on ’Base Erosion and Profit Shifting’ and more radical proposals, identifying core challenges in the extractives sector. This book should become a core resource for both scholars and practitioners. It will also appeal to those interested in international tax issues more widely and those who study environmental economics, macroeconomics and development economics
Ms. Elva Bova, Mr. Paulo A Medas, and Mr. Tigran Poghosyan
Resource-rich countries face large and persistent shocks, especially coming from volatile
commodity prices. Given the severity of the shocks, it would be expected that these countries
adopt countercyclical fiscal policies to help shield the domestic economy. Taking advantage
of a new dataset covering 48 non-renewable commodity exporters for the period 1970-2014,
we investigate whether fiscal policy does indeed play a stabilizing role. Our analysis shows
that fiscal policy tends to have a procyclical bias (mainly via expenditures) and, contrary to
others, we do not find evidence that this bias has declined in recent years. Adoption of fiscal
rules does not seem to reduce procyclicality in a significant way, but the quality of political
institutions does matter. Finally, non-commodity revenues tend to respond only to persistent
changes in commodity prices.
This Article IV Consultation reports that the main challenge is to maintain macroeconomic stability in substantial demand shock from the construction of two major liquefied natural gas projects. The global downturn had only a mild impact, as growth was supported by still strong terms of trade, a financial sector insulated from global capital markets, and an increase in public expenditure. IMF staff stressed that monetary policy needed to be focused on emerging inflation pressures and act preemptively to avoid high inflation from becoming entrenched in expectations.
This working paper overviews the challenges posed by resource revenues management and the policy prescriptions to meet them, and focuses on the Public Financial Management (PFM) framework and reforms that resource-producing countries should adopt. The paper outlines a PFM framework and reform path that take into account the institutional diversity of resource-producing countries. In the short term, the proposed reforms highlights the tools that could be implemented even where the PFM system is rather basic, while over the medium and long term they aim at converging with best international PFM practices.
Mr. Mauricio Villafuerte, Mr. Rolando Ossowski, Mr. Theo Thomas, and Mr. Paulo A Medas
Oil-producing countries have benefited from rising oil prices in recent years. The increase in oil exports and oil revenues has had major implications for these countries. These developments have revealed how governments manage their fiscal policies in light of changing oil-market conditions and the role of special fiscal institutions (SFIs). In this Occasional Paper, IMF experts examine the fiscal response of oil-producing countries to the recent oil boom and the role of SFIs in fiscal management, they review the experiences of selected countries, and they draw general lessons. In doing so, they link findings on best practice in the design of SFIs with broader fiscal management advice.
This paper examines the fiscal responses of oil-producing countries (OPCs) to the oil boom through 2005 and the role of special fiscal institutions (SFIs)—oil funds, fiscal rules and fiscal responsibility legislation (FRL), and budgetary oil prices—in fiscal management in OPCs, and draws some general lessons.