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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Abstract

This handbook is aimed at anyone who is involved in a Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) or who has a practical interest in public investment management. It is intended to be useful for country authorities, IMF staff, staff of other financial institutions and development organizations, and anyone who is interested in exploring different aspects of public investment management to understand how country systems are designed and how they work in practice.

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
Sierra Leone has made significant strides to rebuild its public infrastructure after the devastating civil war, but the desperate infrastructure needs remain. At the end of the conflict in 2002, the country was left with virtually no infrastructure. Redevelopment of public infrastructure was ignited by the mining boom, which started in the late 2000s. Over the period 2008−18, public investment averaged 6.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), which has translated into an estimated capital stock of about 65 percent in constant 2011 GDP. However, a level of public investment is still lower than neighboring countries by about one percentage point. The level of capital stock per capita is one of the lowest in the region, only slightly above that of Liberia. Some districts still have no paved roads, no electricity, and no water systems, almost 20 years after the war.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The level of public investment in Belize has varied over the past years in the context of existing constraints. The sharp increase in public debt has limited available fiscal space.1 This has resulted in an increase in externally financed investments as a share of the capital budget and a growing interest in public private partnerships (PPPs) to help achieve the government of Belize’s national strategy objectives.2 However, the correlation between Belize’s public investment and GDP growth remains weak, and the public capital stock as a ratio to GDP shows a sharp deterioration, possibly pointing to investment inefficiencies.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) of Benin has brought to light an institutional framework of high quality but ineffective implementation. In accordance with the PIMA methodology applied in several countries, the mission focused on assessing the institutional strengths (such as the legal framework and organization) for each institution in the analytical framework, as well as its effective implementation. Benin was found to have a high-quality, relatively complete institutional framework. The country outperforms its peers in this regard, not only compared with the average for the countries of the subregion (the West African Economic and Monetary Union—WAEMU), but also the Sub-Saharan African countries that have already conducted a PIMA exercise (Figure 1). The effectiveness of the framework, however, is weak.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) of Benin has brought to light an institutional framework of high quality but ineffective implementation. In accordance with the PIMA methodology applied in several countries, the mission focused on assessing the institutional strengths for each institution in the analytical framework, as well as its effective implementation. The authorities in 2016 adopted an ambitious investment plan, the government action program (PAG), which is designed to stimulate Benin's economic and social development. Investments in flagship sectors have been identified as means to support this development; the PAG provides recourse primarily to new financing mechanisms, such as public-private partnerships, to ensure the realization of these investments. In connection with the implementation of the PAG, the financial incidences of selected projects should be fully accounted for and reflected in the budget documentation to ensure their sustainability. Enhanced coordination of planning and budget exercises would encourage a better consideration of recurrent expenditure.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This Technical Assistance report on Ukraine highlights that Ukraine currently has an efficiency gap of around 32 percent, which ranks it below average amongst emerging market countries and other comparators. Persistent under-investment, the currently high stock of debt, and ongoing institutional weaknesses, coupled with effects of the conflict in the East could see this gap continuing to grow, absent concerted efforts to reverse recent trends. The report also analyses that government policy on fiscal decentralization, articulated in the government’s 2014 coalition agreement, has the potential to significantly impact on the allocation of public investment. The institutional framework is weak in all areas. It is in terms of effectiveness of the institutions that the Ukrainian public investment management system really falls short. Twelve institutions are ranked as ineffective while a further two are moderately effective, with only one institution scoring a high rank in this category. While the picture looks bleak, some recent initiatives may bring about significant improvements.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This Technical Assistance report on Mexico discusses public investment management assessment (PIMA). It evaluates 15 key institutions in terms of their institutional strength and effectiveness across the planning, allocation, and implementation phases of the PIM cycle, identifies strengths and weaknesses in the existing PIM framework, and produces an action plan to improve PIM. This assessment found that most of Mexico’s institutions scored as medium strength in terms of institutional design and effectiveness. It is recommended to include a medium-term target for the public sector borrowing requirement, introduce an independent body to review and assess the quality of the macro-fiscal projections, and amend the fiscal rule’s escape clause so it is only used in exceptional circumstances. In addition, expand the economic assumptions report to include more information on fiscal strategy and analyses of medium-term fiscal parameters. It is also recommended to develop mechanisms for coordination of public investment plans at federal and subnational levels to enhance efficiency and synergies of planning and investment prioritization.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This Technical Assistance paper assesses Slovak Republic’s public investment management framework using the IMF’s Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) methodology and advises the authorities on options to strengthen further the management of public investment. State-owned enterprises are major investors in infrastructure but are subject to little central oversight of their operational or financial performance. The report makes seven recommendations aimed at strengthening PIM institutions and reducing the identified efficiency gap. These recommendations focus on key bottlenecks and challenges in the investment process. Issues that warrant the authorities’ primary attention include introducing a strategic planning framework for public investment; developing a fully-operational pipeline of major projects, based on clear and robust selection criteria; and improving the credibility of the annual budget and medium-term budget ceilings. It also recommends establishing a national strategy and norms for routine and capital maintenance budgeting that will enhance the quality of strategic existing infrastructure.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This Technical Assistance Report on the Republic of Estonia highlights that public investment is a priority spending area, and Estonia is seeking to strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of its capital expenditure from an already high level. Estonia’s public investment is relatively efficient, while further improvements should pay attention to the quality of public services enabled by them. Investment implementation is particularly strong. This reflects Estonia’s open procurement framework that utilizes an advanced e-procurement system, its modern treasury that employs an effective Treasury Single Account system to guarantee cash availability, asset monitoring that has been made routine through full accrual accounting for the whole public sector, and active project management by ministries. Some practices that are already effectively implemented should be formalized in the institutional design which will act as a safeguard. Public investment projects should be managed in an integrated portfolio at all stages of the investment cycle. It is difficult to obtain a picture of all-important investment projects pursued in the public sector including by local governments and state-owned enterprises. A comprehensive portfolio view of all projects supports transparent prioritization across sectors and the identification of systemic patterns or risks.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This Technical Assistance report highlights institutional weaknesses that need to be addressed and proposes eight priority reform measures to strengthen the public investment management framework in the Philippines. This report reviews public investment management practices in the Philippines, using the IMF’s Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) methodology. The PIMA findings could guide the upcoming Public Expenditure Review that is likely to be completed with the support of the World Bank. The PIMA provides a broad overview of institutional strengths and weaknesses along the public investment cycle. Strengthening public investment management in the Philippines would help maximize the return from the infrastructure investment in the coming years. While the public investment management institutions in the Philippines are generally comparable to emerging market economies, there is scope to improve performance. Standard methodologies for maintenance planning and costing of infrastructure assets exist for certain types of assets, and the same practice should be extended to other sectors. It would also be beneficial to establish a central monitoring mechanism to ensure the routine maintenance of major infrastructure assets.