Mr. Geoffrey J Bannister, Mr. Jarkko Turunen, and Malin Gardberg
Despite significant strides in financial development over the past decades, financial dollarization, as reflected in elevated shares of foreign currency deposits and credit in the banking system, remains common in developing economies. We study the impact of financial dollarization, differentiating across foreign currency deposits and credit on financial depth, access and efficiency for a large sample of emerging market and developing countries over the past two decades. Panel regressions estimated using system GMM show that deposit dollarization has a negative impact on financial deepening on average. This negative impact is dampened in cases with past periods of high inflation. There is also some evidence that dollarization hampers financial efficiency. The results suggest that policy efforts to reduce dollarization can spur faster and safer financial development.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2018 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Bangladesh economy continues to perform well with robust and stable growth. The strong growth comes with stable inflation, moderate public debt, and greater resilience to external shocks. The country continues to make steady progress in reducing poverty and improving social indicators. Real GDP growth in FY2017 (ending September 30) further accelerated to 7.3 percent from 7.1 percent in the previous fiscal year. The macroeconomic situation is expected to remain robust in FY2018. Growth is projected at about 7 percent with strong domestic demand. Inflation is expected to remain below 6 percent, close to Bangladesh Bank’s target as flood-related pressure on food prices eases with the rice harvest recovery.
This Selected Issues paper discusses the assessment of economic activity in Togo in absence of quarterly GDP series. Togo collects about 40 macroeconomic indicators monthly that span a wide range of sectors of the economy. The selection of the variables for the economic activity index is conducted by finding the combination of variables. The indicators are aggregated into an index using a methodology used by the Conference Board. Then an economic activity index is constructed that effectively replicates the historical growth rates of real GDP in Togo. The selected index minimizes the deviations between the growth rates of the indicator and actual real GDP growth over 2002–13.
This paper explores how monetary policy affects the real economy and its efficacy in promoting
financial stability in a large low income country. This paper shows that monetary policy
modestly impacts real economic activity and inflation via the bank lending and financial
accelerator channels. Second, money market and treasury rates signal changes in the policy
stance, while altering banks’ intermediation cost curves due to shifting risk premia. At the same
time, evidence points to monetary policy inducing an overshooting in asset prices. These findings
suggest that financial stability could be undermined if the calibration of monetary policy is based
solely on output and inflation without accounting for the stage of the financial cycle. Finally, the
paper discusses policy measures that would enhance the transmission of monetary policy and
promote financial stability in Bangladesh.
The degree of an economy’s monetization, which has an important implication on economic growth, can be affected by the conduct of monetary policy, financial sector reform, and episodes of financial crises. The paper finds that monetization--measured by the ratio of broad money to nominal GDP-- in low- to middle-income countries is significantly correlated with per-capita GDP, real interest rates, and financial sector reform. It suggests that maintaining an upward momentum in monetization can be an important policy objective, particularly for low-income countries, and that monetary and financial sector policies need to be conducive to enhancing monetization.
We analyze factors driving persistently higher financial intermediation costs in low-income countries (LICs) relative to emerging market (EMs) country comparators. Using the net interest margin as a proxy for financial intermediation costs at the bank level, we find that within LICs a substantial part of the variation in interest margins can be explained by bank-specific factors: margins tend to increase with higher riskiness of credit portfolio, lower bank capitalization, and smaller bank size. Overall, we find that concentrated market structures and lack of competition in LICs banking systems and institutional weaknesses constitute the key impediments preventing financial intermediation costs from declining. Our results provide strong evidence that policies aimed at fostering banking competition and strengthening institutional frameworks can reduce intermediation costs in LICs.
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
Growth performance in Bangladesh is improving, but macroeconomic imbalances have also emerged. Medium-term growth targets are likely to intensify macroeconomic pressures if not managed well. Longer-term growth prospects hinge on generating sufficient resources to relieve infrastructure bottlenecks and ensuring a competitive business environment focused on labor-intensive activities. There is a need to build on the momentum of recent reforms. To ensure a stable macroeconomic environment, vigilance is foremost required on the fiscal front. The focus is on accelerating growth-promoting structural reforms, while ensuring a stable macroeconomic environment.
This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Bangladesh’s external position strengthened considerably in FY2009 and the first four months of FY2010. Strong remittances, resilient exports, and weak imports caused the current account of the balance of payments to record a surplus of almost 3 percent of GDP in FY2009, up from less than 1 percent of GDP in FY2008. Amid continued uncertainty about the strength of the global recovery, Bangladesh’s growth momentum is likely to remain somewhat subdued in the near term yet inflation seems set to increase.