This paper is the first attempt to directly explore the long-run nonlinear relationship between the
shadow economy and level of development. Using a dataset of 158 countries over the period from
1996 to 2015, our results reveal a robust U-shaped relationship between the shadow economy size
and GDP per capita. Our results imply that the shadow economy tends to increase when economic
development surpasses a given threshold or at least does not disappear. Our findings suggest that
special attention should be given to the country’s level of development when designing policies to
tackle issues related to the shadow economy.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights a continued challenging external environment for Mauritania, with low and volatile metal prices. A steep decline in iron ore prices in 2014–15 took away half of exports, widened the fiscal deficit, put pressure on reserves, and exposed bank vulnerabilities. In response, the authorities adjusted the budget significantly in 2016, allowed the exchange rate to adjust, and mobilized foreign grants and loans. These efforts contributed to reducing external imbalances and maintaining macroeconomic stability. The authorities are now strengthening bank supervision and are preparing a national strategy for accelerated and inclusive growth for 2016–30, including structural reforms and a large-scale, foreign-financed infrastructure investment program to support jobs, growth, and diversification.