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International Monetary Fund


This paper discusses the financial organization and operations of the IMF. The policies and activities of the IMF are guided by its charter, known as the Articles of Agreement. The IMF is unique among intergovernmental organizations in its combination of regulatory, consultative, and financial functions, which derive from the purposes for which it was established. The IMF is concerned with not only the problems of individual countries but also the workings of the international monetary system as a whole. Its activities focus on promoting policies and strategies through which its members can work together to ensure a stable world financial system and sustainable economic growth.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
The Mundell-Fleming model of international macroeconomic originated in the early 1960s and has been extended during the ensuing quarter century. This paper develops an exposition that integrates the various facets of the model and incorporates its extensions into a unified analytical framework. Attention is given to (1) the distinction between short-run and long-run effects of policies, (2) the implications of debt and tax financing of government expenditures, and (3) the role of the exchange rate regime in this regard. By identifying the key mechanisms operating in the model, the exposition clarifies the model’s limitations and facilitates comparison with other, more current approaches.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper analyzes the implications of credit policies for output and growth and how they relate to the development of the current account and overall balance of payments. The framework chosen for the analysis is one in which the availability of financing is a direct and major determinant of current and future production. The paper identifies three channels through which credit policies can affect production in the economy. The principal conclusions are that limiting the overall level of credit is not a panacea for balance of payments problems; considerations regarding the distribution and the use of credit are important; in the absence of distortions, the current account objectives are best served by permitting credit expansion and investment to take place in the sector with the highest productivity, independent of whether this sector produces traded goods or nontraded goods; and tight credit policies can endanger the current account objectives when prevailing distortions lead to a “crowding out” of productive uses of credit.