This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights that high levels of unemployment, poverty, and inequality persist in Lesotho despite its faster growth compared with regional peers over the last decade. GDP growth is expected to be about 3 percent in FY2017/18, below the average of 4.1 percent for the past decade, and driven by mining and agriculture. Over the next three years, GDP growth is expected to be led by mining and construction related to the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase II. A steep decline in Southern African Customs Union transfers, a major source of government revenue, will result in a fiscal deficit that is likely to exceed 6 percent of GDP for the second year.
Romina Kazandjian, Ms. Lisa L Kolovich, Ms. Kalpana Kochhar, and Ms. Monique Newiak
We show that gender inequality decreases the variety of goods countries produce and export, in
particular in low-income and developing countries. We argue that this happens through at least
two channels: first, gender gaps in opportunity, such as lower educational enrollment rates for
girls than for boys, harm diversification by constraining the potential pool of human capital
available in an economy. Second, gender gaps in the labor market impede the development of
new ideas by decreasing the efficiency of the labor force. Our empirical estimates support these
hypotheses, providing evidence that gender-friendly policies could help countries diversify their
Mr. Joannes Mongardini, Mr. Tamon Asonuma, Olivier Basdevant, Mr. Alfredo Cuevas, Mr. Xavier Debrun, Lars Holger Engstrom, Imelda M. Flores Vazquez, Mr. Vitaliy Kramarenko, Mr. Lamin Y Leigh, Mr. Paul R Masson, and Ms. Genevieve Verdier
The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is the oldest customs union in the world, with significant opportunities ahead for creating higher economic growth and increased welfare benefits to the people of the region, by fulfilling its vision to become an economic community with a common market and monetary union. This volume describes policy options to address the barriers to equitable and sustainable development in the region and outlines a plan for deeper regional integration.
Olivier Basdevant, Dalmacio Benicio, and Mr. Yorbol Yakhshilikov
This paper applies the work of Berg and Ostry (2011) to the SACU region, to identify how inequalities have played a role in growth in each of these countries, and elaborates policy options to mitigate the effects of inequalities and foster growth. Lower income inequalities could lead to significant gains, as SACU countries could almost double the duration of their growth periods, with much lower inequalities. While reducing inequalities may be desirable, the design of policies to achieve such objective is not trivial. Policies targeting income inequalities at the sources are expected to be the most effective to reduce inequalities and promote growth. However, direct redistribution, if carefully crafted can also be very effective in reducing inequalities while limiting its potentially negative impact on growth.
This paper describes the Kingdom of Lesotho’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) 2012/13–2016/17. NSDP recognizes, as a point of departure, the need and urgency for Lesotho to radically transform its economy. To achieve the National Vision goals and to reduce poverty and achieve sustainable development, the NSDP strategic goals will be to pursue high, shared, and employment-creating economic growth and develop key infrastructure. The mining investment of more than M 5 billion will lead to increased diamond exports, higher GDP, and faster growth in tax revenues.
This joint publication of the United Nations, the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the World Bank reflects the changes and improvements that have been introduced to the System of National Accounts since its most recent revision in 1993. The System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) is a statistical framework that provides a comprehensive, consistent and flexible set of macroeconomic accounts for policymaking, analysis and research purposes. The 2008 SNA is expected to receive distinguished attention not only from professionals practicing in the field of national accounts but policy makers, analysts, academia and a broad range of users who rely on macroeconomic information obtainable from the updated system of accounts. It also provides an overarching framework for standards in other domains of economic statistics, facilitating the integration of these statistical systems to achieve consistency with national accounts. The publication that contains the 2008 SNA has been substantially updated from its previous version as a result of a multiyear collaborative project. Annex 3 of the publication provides a detailed description of the new features of the 2008 SNA. The 2008 SNA will support the implementation of international standards in national accounting and provide the methodological basis for improving the international comparability of national accounts data. When adopting the 2008 SNA as the updated new standard of national accounting, the United Nations Statistical Commission encouraged all countries to compile and report their national accounts on the basis of the 2008 SNA as soon as possible. The publication also provides practical new tools to complement the previously published version: a glossary of SNA terms and definitions and a comprehensive index.
In this study, gross domestic product by sector and expenditure, consumer price indices, basic wages, public service employment, central government operations, government revenues and grants, southern African customs union operations, economic classification of government expenditure, functional classification of government expenditures, outstanding government domestic debt by instrument and holder, monetary survey, assets and liabilities of central and commercial banks, balance of payments, public and publicly guaranteed external debt outstanding, direction of trade, composition of recorded exports, and summary of the tax system are listed.
Workers' remittances are often argued to have a tendency to move countercyclically with the GDP in recipient countries since migrant workers are expected to remit more during down cycles of economic activity back home. Yet, how much to remit is a complex decision involving other factors, and different variables driving remittance behavior are differently affected by the state of economic activity over the business cycle. This paper investigates the behavior of workers' remittances flows into 12 developing countries over their respective business cycles during 1976-2003 and finds that countercyclicality of receipts is not commonly observed across these countries.
This Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix paper analyzes the macroeconomic impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, as well as its repercussions on fiscal policy of Namibia. The paper seeks to assess the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS under a successful implementation of Medium-Term Plan III (MTP III) that would lower the prevalence rate to below its 2004 level. The paper also identifies the effect of HIV/AIDS on the real GDP growth rate over the medium term through a source of growth model that estimates the impact of HIV/AIDS on the factors of production.
The statistical data on gross domestic product, consumer price indices, central government operations, government revenue and grants, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) operations, government expenditure, and outstanding government domestic debt in Lesotho have been presented. The paper presents data on monetary survey, sectoral distribution of commercial bank credit to the private sector and statutory bodies, interest rates paid by the central bank on commercial bank deposits, comparative money market rates, balance of payments, services and income account, Lesotho miners in South Africa, and related economic indices.