Mr. Andrew Berg, Mr. Mumtaz Hussain, Mr. Shaun K. Roache, Ms. Amber A Mahone, Mr. Tokhir N Mirzoev, and Mr. Shekhar Aiyar
This study analyzes key issues associated with large increases in aid, including absorptive capacity, Dutch disease, and inflation. The authors develop a framework that emphasizes the different roles of monetary and fiscal policy and apply it to the recent experience of five countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda. These countries have often found it difficult to coordinate monetary and fiscal policy in the face of conflicting objectives, notably to spend the aid money on domestic goods and to avoid excessive exchange rate appreciation.
Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina
This paper discusses experiences in reestablishing fiscal management in postconflict countries. Building fiscal institutions in postconflict countries essentially entails a three-step process: (1) creating a legal or regulatory framework for fiscal management; (2) establishing or strengthening fiscal authority; and (3) designing appropriate revenue and expenditure policies while simultaneously strengthening revenue administration and public expenditure management. Based on experiences in 14 postconflict countries, the paper reviews the challenges in rebuilding fiscal institutions in these countries, and identifies key priorities in the fiscal area following the cessation of hostilities.
The Mozambican financial system has made remarkable progress from mono-banking to a full blown, market-based, financial system. Although Mozambican banks are generally profitable and well capitalized, they are exposed to significant credit risk. A number of reforms are needed to enhance the independence of the central bank, to ensure it has the financial means to conduct its monetary policy under a very low-inflation environment, and to improve banks' appetite for making new credits in the difficult Mozambiques lending environment.