Libya faces a number of challenges to establishing a robust, efficient, and transparent public financial management system. There is a need to establish a clear macrofiscal policy framework. The Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF) should be a financing fund system with clear and rigid inflow and outflow rules and should be based on clear and regulated investment criteria. Under the existing legal and regulatory framework, budget expenditures cannot exceed the initial ceilings specified in the annual budget law. This should be strictly enforced.
This paper presents a detailed analysis of the average fiscal policy responses of oil producing countries (OPCs) to the recent oil price cycle. We find that OPCs worsened their non-oil primary balances substantially during 2003-2008 driven by an increase in primary spending. However, this trend was partially reversed when oil prices went down in 2009. We also find evidence that fiscal policy has been procyclical and has hence exacerbated the fluctuations in economic activity. In addition, we estimate that a small reduction in oil prices could lead to very large financing needs in the near future. Finally, we show that long-term fiscal sustainability positions in OPCs have worsened.
Establishing a policy framework to sustain high rates of growth is a major challenge facing the economies of the Middle East and North Africa. Given the strikingly dominant role of governments in these economies, this paper focuses on the contribution of fiscal consolidation and reform toward addressing this challenge. On the basis of an examination of fiscal structures, reform and adjustment efforts, and their growth implications during 1980-95, it concludes that the ongoing process of fiscal reform—aimed at reducing budget deficits, improving the budgetary structure, and enhancing the effectiveness of government interventions—is key to ensuring macroeconomic stability and fostering growth.