This Selected Issues paper examines tradeoffs and opportunities for oil revenues in Angola. Angola is facing a stark trade-off between declining oil fiscal revenues over the medium term and increasing social and public investment needs. Opportunities do exist to make the most of Angola’s remaining oil reserves, whilst reducing its debt burden and building fiscal buffers. However, a sound fiscal framework for the use of oil revenues that includes a well-designed fiscal stabilization fund may be needed. Under a more active fiscal rule, public investment can be scaled up gradually, while building fiscal buffers and insulating the non-oil economy from volatile oil price movements.
This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that the oil price shock is adversely impacting the economy of Angola. While oil production has recovered following the completion of maintenance work, non-oil GDP growth is expected to decelerate to 2.1 percent in 2015. The economic situation in 2016 is likely to remain challenging as international oil prices are not expected to recover and risks are on the downside. Growth is projected to remain stable at 3.5 percent in 2016, with the oil sector growing by about 4 percent. The non-oil sector is expected to show a small improvement.
This Technical Assistance Report on Angola highlights that the Angolan authorities’ plan to scale up priority spending will intensify fiscal pressures. The overall fiscal balance is projected to reach a deficit of about 4 percent of GDP in 2014, owing to a temporary decline in oil production. Besides being fiscally costly, fuel subsidies are inefficient and inequitable. They crowd out growth-enhancing spending?Angola’s spending in fuel subsidies is roughly the same as outlays in education and 42 percent larger than health-spending countries. In addition, they provide rent seeking opportunities and raise governance challenges. Furthermore, subsidies create incentives for overconsumption and in turn worsen traffic congestion and accidents?after malaria, road accidents are the second leading cause of death in Angola. Moreover, because most of the benefits of fuel price subsidies accrue to well-off households, they reinforce inequality?more than 50 percent of subsidies go to households in the top 20 percent of the income distribution. The authorities plan to reduce fuel subsidies gradually. This report provides a reform option that would eliminate fuel subsidies and result in fiscal savings of 2 percent of GDP.
KEY ISSUES Context and outlook: Angola’s recent economic developments have been positive, but softening oil revenue and limited proven oil reserves highlight the need to contain emerging fiscal deficits, preserve policy buffers, and continue diversifying the economy. Focus of consultation: Discussions focused on mitigating the main risks to the macroeconomic framework and, inter alia, policies to return to structural fiscal surpluses over the medium term, and to support economic diversification and inclusive growth, the modernization of the monetary policy framework, and financial stability. Key policy recommendations: • Return to structural fiscal surpluses in line with the objective set forth in Angola’s Sovereign Wealth Fund, by mobilizing additional nonoil tax revenue, improving the efficiency of public investment, and reducing current spending, including by phasing out the costly and regressive fuel subsidies—while mitigating the impact on the poor through well-targeted social assistance. • Adopt an improved medium-term fiscal framework, focusing on the structural fiscal balance to limit the impact of the oil sector on the nonoil economy. • Develop a coherent asset-liability management framework, including a well-designed stabilization fund to shield the budget from oil revenue fluctuations. • Further improve public financial management systems to avoid, inter alia, a recurrence in the future of domestic payments arrears. • Continue improving the business climate to boost economic development, diversification, and competitiveness. • In transitioning over the medium-term toward an inflation targeting regime, enhance the central bank’s capacity to collect and analyze high-frequency economic data, and continue de-dollarizing the economy. • Further strengthen the financial system, by continuing to improve the transparency and accountability of banks, and enhancing bank supervision. • Manage public guarantees transparently and with a view to minimize fiscal costs, as envisaged in the recently-approved law on public guarantees.
Guinea is making good progress in recovering from a long period of social unrest and military rule. Macroeconomic imbalances have been reduced, major structural reforms are under way, and long-neglected infrastructure is being rebuilt. However, the political transition process is still incomplete, with parliamentary elections having been delayed, and social tensions persist. Guinea remains vulnerable to developments in international markets, but risks are mitigated by long-term mining contracts; the key food import is rice, where recent international price increases have been modest and where agricultural reforms seek to boost domestic production.
Better designed and implemented fiscal regimes for oil, gas, and mining can make a substantial contribution to the revenue needs of many developing countries while ensuring an attractive return for investors, according to a new policy paper from the International Monetary Fund. Revenues from extractive industries (EIs) have major macroeconomic implications. The EIs account for over half of government revenues in many petroleum-rich countries, and for over 20 percent in mining countries. About one-third of IMF member countries find (or could find) resource revenues “macro-critical” – especially with large numbers of recent new discoveries and planned oil, gas, and mining developments.
IMF policy advice and technical assistance in the field has massively expanded in recent years – driven by demand from member countries and supported by increased donor finance. The paper sets out the analytical framework underpinning, and key elements of, the country-specific advice given.
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Also available in French: Régimes fiscaux des industries extractives: conception et application
Also available in Spanish: Regímenes fiscales de las industrias extractivas: Diseño y aplicación
Despite the rapid increase in FDI flows to LICs, there have been relatively few studies that have specifically examined these flows. This paper attempts to partially fill the void by throwing light on one particularly dynamic aspect of global FDI-flows from Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRICs). The paper finds that official data sources undoubtedly underestimate the volume and scope of FDI flows as many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) do not always register their investment. As a result, while it is difficult to estimate accurately the growth impact of BRIC FDI, there is case study evidence that it is increasingly significant. Second, while initial investment, mostly by state-owned companies, has often been destined for natural resource industries, over time, investment has been spreading to agriculture, manufacturing, and service industries (e.g., telecommunications). Third, FDI from BRICs flows into many non resource-rich countries in LICs and plays a significant role in growth in those countries.
Recent empirical studies have shown an inverse relation between natural resource intensity and long-term growth, implying that the natural resources generally impede economic growth through various channels (the “natural resource curse”). This paper departs from these studies by exploring the intersectoral linkages between oil and non-oil sectors in a cross-country perspective. The paper shows that the applicability of “natural resource curse” across oilbased economies should be treated with caution as the externalities of the oil sector highly depend on the countries’ degree of oil-intensity. In particular, the results show that, in low oil-intensity economies, the incentives to strengthen both fiscal and private sector institutions lead to positive inter-sectoral externalities. In contrast, weaker incentives in high oil-intensity economies adversely affect fiscal and private sector institutions and consequently lead to negative inter-sectoral externalities.
Mr. Alonso A Segura Vasi, Walter Zarate, Mr. Gonzalo C Pastor Campos, and Mr. Ulrich H Klueh
This paper attempts to offer specific inputs to the debate on local content promotion in the oil industry, using the specific case of São Tomé and Príncipe as point of reference. Our approach emphasizes inter-sectoral linkages and institutional pre-conditions for local content promotion. Based on an Input-Output description of the economy, we quantify the consistency between the prospective oil sector development and the growth of other sectors of the economy. We also assess a number of sectoral policies and "niche" activities within the oil industry that would maximize the local benefits from oil exploration.