Superficial examination of aggregate gross cross-border capital inflow data suggests that there
was no substitution between portfolio inflows and bank loans in recent years. However, our
novel analysis of disaggregate inflows (both by types of instrument and borrower) shows
interesting heterogeneity. There has been substitution of bank loans for portfolio debt securities
not only in the case of corporate and sovereign borrowers in advanced countries, but also
sovereign borrowers in emerging countries. In the case of corporate borrowers in emerging
markets, the relationship corresponds to complementarity across types of gross capital inflows,
especially during periods of positive capital gross inflows after the global financial crisis. A
large part of these patterns does not seem to be driven by a common phenomenon across
countries associated with the global financial cycle, but rather by country-specific factors.
When the euro was introduced in 1998, one objective was to create an alternative global
reserve currency that would grant benefits to euro area countries similar to the U.S.
dollar’s “exorbitant privliege”: i.e., a boost to the perceived quality of euro denominated
assets that would increase demand for such assets and reduce euro area members’ funding
costs. This paper uses risk perceptions as revelaed in investor surveys to extract a measure
of privilege asscociated with euro membership, and traces its evolution over time. It finds
that in the 2000s, euro area assets benefited indeed from a significant perceptions
premium. While this premium disappeared in the wake of the euro crisis, it has recently
returned, although at a reduced size. The paper also produces time-varying estimates of
the weights that investors place on macro-economic fundmentals in their assessments of
country risk. It finds that the weights of public debt, the current account and real growth
increased considerably during the euro crisis, and that these shifts have remained in place
even after the immediate financial stress subsided.
This Selected Issues paper takes the case of Slovenia to analyze credit growth and economic recovery in Europe. The findings reveal that following the global financial crisis recovery in Slovenia significantly lags typical postrecession recoveries for both typical and financial-crisis-driven recessions. Credit dynamics have also been much more subdued. Controlling for Slovenia’s double-dip recession and the slowdown in global growth after the global financial crisis reveals that Slovenia’s recovery is not atypical. The cross-country study also finds that bank-specific factors are the key determinants of bank lending. Bank credit to the private sector also has a positive but modest impact on economic activity, mainly through the investment channel.
This paper focuses on the following key issues of the Slovenian economy: export competitiveness, corporate financial health and investment, European Central Bank (ECB) quantitative easing, and financial sector development issues and prospects. Slovenia’s exports have been the main contributor to GDP growth in recent years. In particular, by 2015 exports of goods and services had increased by 20 percentage points of GDP compared to their postcrisis low in 2009. Preceding the global economic slump in 2008, bank credit in Slovenia fueled corporate investment. The past few years have witnessed substantial monetary easing by the ECB. With inflation running well below target, the ECB has been pursuing unconventional monetary policy-easing actions.
By analysing data from January 2007 to December 2012 in a panel GLS error correction framework we find that European countries’ sovereign CDS spreads are largely driven by global investor sentiment, macroeconomic fundamentals and liquidity conditions in the CDS market. But the relative importance of these factors changes over time. While during the 2008/09 crisis weak economic fundamentals (such as high current account decifit, worsening underlying fiscal balances, credit boom), a drop in liquidity and a spike in risk aversion contributed to high spreads in Central and Eastern and South-Eastern European (CESEE) countries, a marked improvement in fundamentals (e.g. reduction in fiscal deficit, narrowing of current balances, gradual economic recovery) explains the region’s resilience to financial market spillovers during the euro area crisis. Our generalised variance decomposition analyisis does not suggest strong direct spillovers from the euro area periphery. The significant drop in the CDS spreads between July 2012 and December 2012 was mainly driven by a decline in risk aversion as suggested by the model’s out of sample forecasts.
This Information Annex highlights that Slovenia maintains an exchange system that is free of restrictions on the making of payments and transfers for current international transactions, with the exception of exchange restrictions maintained for security reasons. Slovenian fiscal statistics are timely and high quality. The Ministry of Finance publishes a comprehensive monthly Bulletin of Government Finance, which presents monthly data on the operations of the state budget, local governments, social security, and the consolidated general government. The coverage of general government excludes the operations of extrabudgetary funds and general government agencies’ own revenues. However, these operations are small.
Slovenia, among other euro area countries, experienced the largest economic contraction since 2008. The performance of Slovenian banks deteriorated markedly in recent years as a result of the unfavorable operating environment and weak governance. Despite some deleveraging, banks continued to depend heavily on wholesale funding from abroad. Slovenia’s rebalancing required relying on supply-side policies, in particular, the labor market. With the banking system under pressure and the corporate sector highly leveraged, the Executive Board recommended strengthening the regulatory and supervisory frameworks.