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International Monetary Fund
This Statistical Appendix report on Sudan discusses economic indicators for the period 1994–2000. The report discusses gross domestic product; agricultural production; yield of cotton and noncotton crops; livestock production; manufacturing production; electricity tariff data; consumer and wholesale price indices; central government revenue and expenditure details; official exchange rates; analytical accounts of deposit money banks; monetary authorities' accounts; summary balance of payments; export and import data; loan disbursements; external public debt; and so on.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Sudan during 1997–99. Sudan initiated reforms under the 1997 and 1998 Staff-Monitored Programs. Real GDP growth accelerated modestly to an annual average of about 6 percent during 1997–98. Inflation declined from an average of 133 percent in 1996 to 17 percent in 1998. Fiscal revenue buoyancy has increased markedly after years of stagnation at low levels and, coupled with an improvement in budget control, has succeeded in sharply reducing the overall budget deficit. Aided by positive real rates of returns, financial disintermediation has been halted.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper reports the results of some preliminary research into the repercussions, for income distribution, of stabilization programs associated with the use of IMF resources in the upper credit tranches. In the first section, it explores the relationship between the balance of payments and the distribution of income from a theoretical perspective. The general concern is whether adjustment influences the distribution of income in some systematic manner; the concern is to delineate the conditions under which a decline in the real wage is necessary for adjustment actually to take place. Using neoclassical analysis, one finds that the ratio of the nominal wage to the price of exports must decline, but whether this involves a fall in the overall real wage depends on many variables, including the relative proportions of traded and nontraded goods in the consumer's market basket. Second, it presents a qualitative analysis of the distributional effects of the measures that tend to be included in these programs, viz., ceilings on net credit expansion, currency depreciation, and the relaxation and simplification of exchange restrictions and controls.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper reviews the procurement process under World Bank projects. The paper highlights that the World Bank’s interest in procurement under its loans stems directly from the “project” requirement of its Articles, which stipulates that it should lend for specific projects, except in special circumstances, and that it should ensure that the proceeds of the loan are used only for its specified purpose, with due attention to economy and efficiency. In 1951, the World Bank began introducing international competitive bidding as the normal procedure for procurement of the goods and works needed for its projects.