This paper examines oversight issues that underlie the potential growth and risks in mobile payments. International experience suggests that financial authorities can develop effective oversight frameworks for new payment methods to safeguard public confidence and financial stability by establishing: (i) a clear legal regime; (ii) proportionate AML/CFT measures to prevent financial integrity risks; (iii) fund safeguarding measures such as insurance, similar guarantee schemes, or “pass through” deposit insurance; (iv) contingency plans for operational disruptions; and (v) risk controls and access criteria in payment systems. Such measures are particularly important for low-income countries where diffusion is becoming more widespread.
This paper discusses key findings of the Ex Post Assessment (EPA) of Longer-Term Program Engagement paper for Kenya. This EPA focuses on 1993–2007, when Kenya was engaged in four successive IMF arrangements. Macroeconomic policy design was broadly appropriate, and implementation was generally sound. Growth slowed in the 1990s, but picked up after the 2002 elections, reflecting buoyant global conditions, structural reforms, and a surge of private capital inflows. Monetary policies were complicated by a reluctance to allow for full interest and exchange rate flexibility.
This paper presents a Joint Staff Advisory Note on Kenya’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. Kenya is implementing the three-tiered East Africa Community (EAC) common external tariff and needs to develop a trade strategy, in agreement with other EAC members, that further lowers trade barriers against the rest of the world. As the government works toward meeting the remaining benchmarks, steps should be taken to consolidate public financial management reforms along with regular reviews of the existing plans to better prioritize, coordinate, and monitor reform measures.
The Handbook presents an overall analytical framework for assessing financial system stability and developmental needs, providing broad guidance on approaches, methodologies, and techniques of assessing financial systems. Although the Handbook draws substantially on World Bank and IMF experience with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) and from the broader policy and operational work in both institutions, it is designed for generic use in financial sector assessments, whether conducted by country authorities themselves, or by World Bank and IMF teams.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix addresses the question of how to interpret recent developments in the Kenyan consumer price index (CPI) properly to assess the current inflation pressure and extract signals about possible future CPI inflation trends. The paper discusses why Kenya’s exports have performed poorly over the past five years in spite of a more liberalized trade and exchange rate regime. The analysis shows that Kenya faces both price and nonprice constraints on export performance.
This paper argues that natural resource abundance creates opportunities for rent-seeking behavior and is an important factor in determining a country’s level of corruption. In a simple growth model, we illustrate the interrelationships between natural resources, corruption, and economic growth, and discuss potential anti-corruption policies. We show that the extent of corruption depends on natural resource abundance, government policies, and the concentration of bureaucratic power. Furthermore, the growth effects of natural resource discoveries and anticorruption policies crucially depend on the economy’s state of development. We empirically corroborate the model’s implications in a cross-country framework with both corruption and growth endogenized.