Changes to the regulatory system introduced after the financial crisis include not only mandatory clearing of OTC derivatives at central counterparties and margining of uncleared derivatives, but also prudential measures, including notably a “Liquidity Coverage Ratio” which obliges firms to set aside high-quality liquid assets (HQLA) as a stopgap against anticipated cash outflows. We examine factors which may affect the demand for HQLA in a severely stressed market following a hypothetical default of a major clearing member. Immediately following a major default, the amount of HQLA demanded by the whole market would spike. We estimate the size of the spike and draw conclusions as to whether the depth of the market is adequate to absorb it.
Nazim Belhocine, Mr. Daniel Garcia-Macia, and José Garrido
The modernization of Italy’s insolvency framework has been the subject of much interest in recent
years, related not least to its role in potentially facilitating an efficient allocation of resources. A
unique feature of Italy’s insolvency framework is a special regime for large enterprises known as
“extraordinary administration”. This paper evaluates the merits of this special regime by assessing
its efficacy and success in achieving its stated goals and comparing its features to international
standards and best practices. It finds that the special regime tends to impose large costs on
creditors and the state. The regime results, in most cases, in the sale of parts of the group, followed
by a liquidation phase of the remaining assets which can take longer than the general regime,
hindering legal certainty for creditors and more generally economic efficiency, investment and job
creation. Based on international best practices and experience, consideration should be given to
folding the special regime into the general insolvency regime, possibly with provisions to allow for
state intervention in specific well-defined circumstances.
Recovery and resolution regimes are being developed for central counterparties (CCPs).
We analyse current resolution tools in the context of policy, which is to restore the critical functions of a failed CCP. We conclude that the toolkit is insufficient to avoid the costs of resolution being borne by taxpayers, and propose alternative policy suggestions for addressing the problem of a failed CCP.
Italian banks are burdened with high levels of nonperforming loans, the cleanup of which depends in important part on the efficiency of insolvency and enforcement processes. Traditionally, these processes in Italy have taken very long, hampering the timely cleanup of balance sheets. In response, the authorities have legislated a number of measures. This paper explores the recent insolvency and enforcement reforms and the remaining challenges. These reforms introduce important positive changes that are expected to yield full benefits over the medium to long term. The efficacy of the reforms, including to deal with the current stock of high nonperforming loans, can be enhanced by introducing effective out-of-court enforcement mechanisms, supplemented by a more intensive use of informal and hybrid debt-restructuring solutions. Moreover, there is an urgent need to rationalize the system, which over the years has become very complex and intricate.
Consumer protection and financial literacy are essential pillars of a well functioning and stable financial system. As the global financial crisis demonstrated, inadequate attention to consumer protection and financial literacy can lead to financial instability. Though Shari’ah principles provide a strong foundation for consumer protection, the principles alone cannot provide adequate protection because not all providers are guided by ethical precepts and the practices have deviated from the principles. To safeguard the stability of the Islamic finance industry, consumer protection frameworks that cater to the specifics of Islamic financial products should be an integral part of regulatory frameworks.