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  • Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General x
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Mario Pessoa, Andrew Okello, Artur Swistak, Muyangwa Muyangwa, Virginia Alonso-Albarran, and Vincent de Paul Koukpaizan
The value-added tax (VAT) has the potential to generate significant government revenue. Despite its intrinsic self-enforcement capacity, many tax administrations find it challenging to refund excess input credits, which is critical to a well-functioning VAT system. Improperly functioning VAT refund practices can have profound implications for fiscal policy and management, including inaccurate deficit measurement, spending overruns, poor budget credibility, impaired treasury operations, and arrears accumulation.This note addresses the following issues: (1) What are VAT refunds and why should they be managed properly? (2) What practices should be put in place (in tax policy, tax administration, budget and treasury management, debt, and fiscal statistics) to help manage key aspects of VAT refunds? For a refund mechanism to be credible, the tax administration must ensure that it is equipped with the strategies, processes, and abilities needed to identify VAT refund fraud. It must also be prepared to act quickly to combat such fraud/schemes.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa is struggling to navigate an unprecedented health and economic crisis—one that, in just a few months, has jeopardized decades of hard-won development gains and upended the lives and livelihoods of millions.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa is struggling to navigate an unprecedented health and economic crisis—one that, in just a few months, has jeopardized decades of hard-won development gains and upended the lives and livelihoods of millions.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa is struggling to navigate an unprecedented health and economic crisis—one that, in just a few months, has jeopardized decades of hard-won development gains and upended the lives and livelihoods of millions.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa is struggling to navigate an unprecedented health and economic crisis—one that, in just a few months, has jeopardized decades of hard-won development gains and upended the lives and livelihoods of millions.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

The Kenyan Parliament adopted in September 2016 a law on interest rate controls. The lawmakers’ objective was to reduce the cost of borrowing, expand access to financial services, and increase the return on savings. Since its introduction, however, the law seems to have had several unintended negative consequences. These include: (i) a sharp decline in bank credit to micro, small, and medium-sized firms; (ii) a disproportionate hit on lending activity and profitability of small banks; and (iii) reduced monetary policy signaling. These are assessed to have had a significant adverse impact on economic growth and financial inclusion. Such costs are expected to mount over time and, if controls are maintained for much longer, they could hurt financial stability. The staff recommends that the law on interest rate controls is abolished, or at least modified to avoid its adverse effects. Instead, the focus should be to accelerate and deepen the reforms underway that aim to increase competition in the financial sector and improve the functioning of the interbank market.

Mr. Andrew Berg and Mr. Rafael A Portillo

Abstract

Monetary policy in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) has undergone an important transformation in recent decades. With the advent of sustained growth and generally stable fiscal policies in much of the region, many countries are now working to modernize their monetary policy frameworks. This book provides a comprehensive view of the many monetary policy issues in sub-Saharan Africa. It reflects an effort to fill a gap in the current literature and collects research by staff of the IMF and other institutions, as well as from policymakers within central banks in SSA. The chapters explore the many dimensions of monetary policy in SSA. This volume will serve as an important reference for academics and policymakers and will inform future policy debates. The book highlights two points, one policy-related and the other methodological. Although these countries differ in important ways from advanced and emerging market countries, the monetary policy issues they face are not fundamentally different from those faced elsewhere. Policy aims to provide an anchor for inflation over the medium term while also responding to external and domestic shocks. Likewise, Sub-Saharan African countries are in the process of modernizing their policy frameworks, by clarifying their objectives and improving their operational frameworks, making policy increasingly forward-looking and improving their forecasting and analytical capacity.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper discusses the findings of the assessment of the financial system in Zambia. Nonperforming loans have risen and private sector credit growth has turned negative, owing to the severe pressures of 2015–16. The pressures included slower economic growth, sharply lower copper prices, electricity shortages, very tight monetary policy, and mounting fiscal arrears and severe fiscal funding pressures. Looking ahead, the financial system faces considerable risks, owing to high dependence on copper exports, rising public debt and funding pressures, and an uncertain monetary policy regime. A sharper-than-expected global slowdown may lead to copper price declines and additional pressures on government finance and the exchange rate. A lack of fiscal adjustment may worsen government payments arrears, further impacting asset quality.