This paper analyzes asymmetries in direct investment positions reported in the
Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS) following a top down approach.
First, it examines asymmetries at global level; second, it examines asymmetries between
CDIS reported and derived data for individual economies; and third, the paper analyzes
data at bilateral economy level.
Then, the paper explores seven main reasons for asymmetries, including those arising
even when economies follow international standards.
Finally, the paper includes a section on addressing bilateral asymmetries and concludes
with specific planned actions to reduce asymmetries, including initiatives led by
Standards assessments serve several important objectives but are not well integrated into Fund surveillance. Financial standards assessments, when undertaken in the context of FSAPs, are used to identify weaknesses in financial regulation and supervision, or other areas covered by international standards. However, those weaknesses are not specifically linked to the risks and vulnerabilities facing the financial sector. Conversely, the analysis of country-specific vulnerabilities in the FSAP does not contribute to targeting the standard assessment effort, since the assessment must be exhaustive and cover the entire standard.
This paper focuses on financial regulatory policies and stability. The British Virgin Islands (BVI) provides administrative, audit, and legal services to international business companies, which is another key component of the economy. Developments in the financial sector and regulatory framework warrant an update of the assessment conducted under the IMF’s Offshore Financial Center (OFC) program. Financial Services Commission Act (FSCA) provides the Financial Services Commission (FSC) with a wide array of specific regulatory, supervisory, and enforcement powers. The banking system has been insulated from global financial shocks. Many critical elements develop a robust and proportionate crisis management framework.
Partly reflecting structural advantages such a liquidity and strong investor protection, foreigners have built up extremely large positions in U.S. (as well as other dollar-denominated) financial assets. This paper describes the impact on global wealth of an unanticipated shock to U.S. financial markets. For every 10 percent decline in the dollar, U.S. equity markets, and U.S. bond markets, total wealth losses to foreigners could amount to about 5 percentage points of foreign GDP. Four stylized facts emerge: (i) foreign countries, particularly emerging markets, are more exposed to U.S. bonds than U.S. equities; (ii) U.S. exposure has increased for most countries; (iii) on average, U.S. asset holdings of developed countries and emerging markets (scaled by GDP) are very similar; and (iv) based on their reserve positions, wealth losses of emerging market governments could, on average, amount to about 2¾ percentage points of their GDP.
This report provides an assessment of the British Virgin Islands’s (BVI) compliance with the Basel Core Principle for effective banking supervision. The BVI has the preconditions for effective banking supervision. It has specific legislation governing international cooperation and mutual legal assistance. The BVI has designed its antimoney laundering (AML)/combating the financing of terrorism supervisory legislation to apply broadly to banks and trust companies, insurance business, and parallel areas. The financial services commission is responsible for both prudential supervision and ensuring compliance with AML measures.
Mrs. Anne C Jansen, Mr. Donald J Mathieson, Mr. Barry J. Eichengreen, Ms. Laura E. Kodres, Mr. Bankim Chadha, and Mr. Sunil Sharma
Hedge funds are collective investment vehicles, often organized as private partnerships and resident offshore for tax and regulatory purposes. Their legal status places few restrictions on their portfolios and transactions, leaving their managers free to use short sales, derivative securities, and leverage to raise returns and cushion risk. This paper considers the role of hedge funds in financial market dynamics, with particular reference to the Asian crisis.