This Selected Issues paper assesses the marginal impact of promoting inclusive growth in Malta. The paper uses a multi-country simulation model, the IMF’s Flexible System of Global Models calibrated for Malta, is used to analyze the macroeconomic impacts of ongoing and potential future reforms. Three different policies are analyzed, namely: increasing childcare and after care benefits; extending working lives; and upskilling the labor force. The model shows that the reduction of absolute poverty has been accompanied by rising inequality. The simulation evaluates the macroeconomic impact of introducing free childcare, which is the actual government policy since 2015. Simulations show that policies that are primarily aimed at improving social inclusion also end up boosting potential output, thereby mitigating the fiscal cost of such policies in the long term. Recent declines in poverty rate can partly be ascribed to the cycle, however, recent structural reforms likely have had a significant impact on growth.
This Economic development Document presents an overview of Malawi’s Development Plan. Disappointing results with respect to implementation of Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II have triggered a qualified rethink in Malawi’s development planning process. There is a growing recognition that Malawi needs a more realistic development plan, in terms of both the underlying assumptions and resource availability, as well as with fewer priorities and a greater emphasis on implementation. Climate change has also become a major new factor in this process. The recent formation of a quasi-independent National Development and Planning Commission is expected to help in improving the independence of the planning process in Malawi.
This Economic Development Document highlights the Moldova 2020 National Development Strategy focus on producing a social and economic impact on various development priorities. Poverty reduction has progressed significantly during the past eight years: the national poverty rate decreased from 26.4 percent in 2008 to 9.6 percent in 2015. Remittances by emigrants and higher agricultural income, salaries, and social benefits were the major drivers of poverty reduction. The means-tested social assistance program had a significant impact. This social aid has proved to be the most efficient social protection against poverty; however, social support programs that are not means tested are ineffective.
The paper examines the poverty-reducing and distributional characteristics of Djibouti’s economic growth, and discusses policies that might help make growth more inclusive. It covers the period between 2002 and 2013, for which comparable household surveys are available. The main findings are that while in the past decade the overall level of poverty in Djibouti declined, there have been no clear signs of improvements in either equality or growth inclusiveness. Growth has not been inclusive and benefitted mainly those in the upper part of the income distribution. These conclusions should be treated as indicative. Progress in poverty reduction and inclusiveness would require not only sustained high growth but also the creation of opportunities in sectors with high earning potential for the poor. Better targeted social policies and more attention to the regional distribution of spending would also help reduce poverty and improve inclusiveness.
This Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper highlights that Togo’s Strategy for Boosting Growth and Promoting Employment offers a medium-term development framework for implementing the Government’s General Policy Statement, the Millennium Development Goals, and the Government’s vision for making Togo an emerging economy in 15 to 20 years, as well as making it a country that respects human rights and promotes the rule of law. The return of political stability and peace to the country created a favorable environment for better governance, resumption of international assistance, and significant reduction in exterior public debt. The Government’s medium-term economic policy for 2013–2017 will essentially be used to build and consolidate the foundations for Togo’s future economic emergence. The focus will be on new priorities: boosting growth; employment and inclusion; strengthening governance; and reducing regional disparities and promoting grassroots development. Designing a national land-use plan will territorialize development by creating a more balanced national economic space. The new land-use scheme will be based on dynamic, competitive, regional economies in which the urbanization of regional capitals and secondary towns is sufficiently controlled to allow true development hubs to emerge.
This paper discusses Second National Poverty Reduction Strategy II (NPRS-II) (2012–2016) for Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. A comparison of the results of the 2000 and 2010 poverty profile, based on the average income method, shows that there was progress in reducing poverty, albeit far less than expected. The ratio of the incidence of poverty decreased from 53.8 percent in 2000 to 49.6 percent in 2010, representing a reduction of 4.2 percentage points, which is far below the target set in the NPRS-I for 2010, and also shows relative improvement in the depth of poverty.
This paper focuses on Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) 2013–2018 for Rwanda. Ownership of the EDPRS by a wide range of stakeholders at national level has been a key factor of success. The EDPRS 2 has integrated inclusiveness and sustainability as driving factors in elaborating the strategy. Community-based solutions, working closely with the population, have made possible fast-track and cost-effective implementation and increased demand for accountability, in education with the 9YBE construction of classrooms, the Crop Intensification Program in agriculture, and community-based health care programs.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper focuses on Sudan’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRPS). I-PRSP will support existing planning and budgeting instruments, including the 3-Year Salvation Economic Program (SEP) 2012–2014 and the 5-Year Development Plan (2012–2016), by strengthening the prioritization of actions and targeting poverty. The 3-Year SEP is an emergency plan to deal with the adjustment to new political and economic realities following the decision of the South to secede. I-PRSP will also help to fine tune the preparation and implementation of the SEP and a new 5-year Plan, and provide a foundation for the full PRSP.