Ukraine’s economic performance has been anemic since the early 1990s. A major impediment to productivity growth has been low investment, held back by lack of strong and independent institutions. This paper aims to assess the major areas of institutional weakness in Ukraine and quantify the long-term growth impact of catching-up to Poland in terms of the quality of major economic institutions and market development. Our analysis identifies the legal system as the area where the institutional quality is weakest compared to Poland, followed distantly by market competition, openness to trade and financial depth. Using a methodology that accounts for positive spillovers between the structural reform areas, we estimate that even under the most optimistic scenario, where institutional gaps are fully addressed, Ukraine would need 15 years to catch up to Poland’s current income level.
The 2008 transition to the new banking supervisory framework in Poland has been relatively smooth, and the banking system has proven effective in weathering the financial crisis. This assessment focuses on the working of the Polish Financial Supervision Commission (KNF), which is responsible for banking supervision in Poland. KNF has undertaken numerous proactive measures to preserve financial sector stability during the crisis. As a priority, KNF’s interaction with bank auditors as well as with supervisory board members should also be strengthened.
This Detailed Assessment Report reviews antimoney laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) measures for Germany. The report reveals that Germany has introduced a number of measures in recent years to strengthen its AML/CFT regime. Germany has generated a relatively large number of prosecutions for money laundering and orders to confiscate assets. These achievements occurred even though Germany has shortcomings identified in this assessment against the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 40 + 9 Recommendations. There are also weaknesses in the legal framework and in sanctioning for noncompliance with AML/CFT requirements.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
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It is not unusual for reforming socialist economies to relax wage controls without hardening budget constraints on enterprises or freeing consumer goods prices. This policy can be dangerously destabilizing. While higher wages permit workers to purchase more of some goods, they also tend to exacerbate shortages and to breed waste and corruption. Beyond a certain level, economy-wide wage hikes will worsen worker welfare. This is true regardless of whether deficit goods are strictly rationed, are sold randomly at official prices to queuing workers, or are offered to workers by “insiders” only at black market prices. However, the form of allocation does influence output and worker welfare.