This paper provides a conceptual overview of key aspects of the design and implementation of solvency stress testing of Islamic banks. Based on existing regulatory standards and prudential practice, the paper explains how Islamic finance principles and their impact on various risk drivers affect the capital assessment of asset-oriented financial intermediation under stress. The formal specification of these risk factors helps operationalize and integrate the stress testing of Islamic banks within established frameworks for financial stability analysis.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper investigates impact of financial technology (FinTech) on Malaysia’s financial sector. Malaysia is digitally enabled to seize the opportunities brought by FinTech. Malaysian banks continue to dominate in deposits, lending and capital raising, but they have been gradually reducing their emphasis on physical distribution networks. The top five Malaysian banks have increased their technology-related spending over the past three years. Regulators have been mindful of developments outside of the traditional regulatory perimeter that could pose financial stability risks. Rapidly evolving technology is likely to bring multiple challenges to the financial sector. Regulatory requirements are an important component of operating in the FinTech space. Regulators must strike a balance between ensuring financial stability and consumer protection, while promoting innovation and competition. In order to address the lack of regulatory acumen among FinTech industry players, Bank Negara Malaysia has spearheaded various initiatives. A key challenge for Malaysian regulators is to strike a balance between reaping the benefits of FinTech and mitigating potential downside risks in both conventional and Islamic finance. Frequent refinements to regulations and supervision are required to keep pace with the highly dynamic nature of FinTech to balance benefits and risks.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper presents country experiences with reforms to strengthen regulatory oversight of the Islamic banking sector. Based on the selected country experiences, a number of important lessons and policy options can be drawn that have implications for the stable and sound development of Islamic banking. An enabling regulatory and institutional framework and a level playing field for conventional and Islamic banks is critical for the sound and stable growth of the Islamic banking industry. The country experiences also underscore the importance of providing an enabling framework while letting market forces determine the size of the industry.
This paper discusses key issues related to the conduct of monetary policy in countries that have Islamic banks. It describes the macrofinancial background and monetary policy frameworks where Islamic banks typically operate, and discusses the monetary transmission mechanism in economies where Islamic and conventional banking coexist. Most economies with Islamic banks also have conventional banks and this calls for a comprehensive approach to monetary policy. At the same time, a dual approach to monetary policy should be considered whenever the Islamic segment of the financial system is not as developed as the conventional one. The paper tries to shed light on potential spillovers between conventional and Islamic financial systems, and proposes specific recommendations on the design of Islamic monetary policy operations and for facilitating monetary transmission through the Islamic financial system.
Ms. Ritu Basu, Mr. Ananthakrishnan Prasad, and Mr. Sergio L. Rodriguez
The assessment provides evidence of market segmentation across Islamic and conventional banks in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), leading to excess liquidity, and an uneven playing field for Islamic banks that might affect their growth. Liquidiy management has been a long-standing concern in the global Islamic finance industry as there is a general lack of Shari’ah compliant instruments than can serve as high-quality short-term liquid assets. The degree of segmentation and bank behavior varies across countries depending on Shari’ah permissibility and the availability of Shari’ah-compliant instruments. A partial response would be to support efforts to build Islamic liquid interbank and money markets, which are crucial for monetary policy transmission through the Islamic financial system.This can be achieved, to a large extent, by deepening Islamic government securities and developing Shari’ah-compliant money market instruments.
Mr. Mumtaz Hussain, Asghar Shahmoradi, and Rima Turk
Islamic finance has started to grow in international finance across the globe, with some
concentration in few countries. Nearly 20 percent annual growth of Islamic finance in recent
years seems to point to its resilience and broad appeal, partly owing to principles that govern
Islamic financial activities, including equity, participation, and ownership. In theory, Islamic
finance is resilient to shocks because of its emphasis on risk sharing, limits on excessive risk
taking, and strong link to real activities. Empirical evidence on the stability of Islamic banks,
however, is so far mixed. While these banks face similar risks as conventional banks do, they
are also exposed to idiosyncratic risks, necessitating a tailoring of current risk management
practices. The macroeconomic policy implications of the rapid expansion of Islamic finance
are far reaching and need careful considerations.
Consumer protection and financial literacy are essential pillars of a well functioning and stable financial system. As the global financial crisis demonstrated, inadequate attention to consumer protection and financial literacy can lead to financial instability. Though Shari’ah principles provide a strong foundation for consumer protection, the principles alone cannot provide adequate protection because not all providers are guided by ethical precepts and the practices have deviated from the principles. To safeguard the stability of the Islamic finance industry, consumer protection frameworks that cater to the specifics of Islamic financial products should be an integral part of regulatory frameworks.
Mr. Alfred Kammer, Mr. Mohamed Norat, Mr. Marco Pinon, Mr. Ananthakrishnan Prasad, Mr. Christopher M Towe, and Mr. Zeine Zeidane
The SDN discusses the main policy issues and challenges in building an inclusive and safe Islamic finance industry, with emphasis on Islamic banking and Sukuk markets. To this end, it discuses why Islamic finance matters, taking into account its recent and prospective growth; and, its potential contributions in terms of financial inclusion, support for small- and medium-sized enterprises and investment in public infrastructure and, in principle, reduced systemic risk. It then covers a range of regulatory and other challenges, and offers policy advice, to address factors that hamper the development of the industry and, more generally, the delivery of its potential benefits. The paper covers regulatory and supervisory issues, safety nets and resolution frameworks, access to finance, Sukuk markets, and macroeconomic policies.