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  • Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements x
  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the x
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Feng Wei and Jean-François Wen
Presumptive income taxes in the form of a tax on turnover for SMEs are pervasive as a way to reduce the costs of compliance and administration. We analyze a model where entrepreneurs allocate labor to the formal and informal sectors. Formal sector income is subjected either to a corporate income tax or a tax on turnover, depending on whether their turnover exceeds a threshold. We characterize the private sector equilibrium for any given configuration of tax policy parameters (corporate income tax rate, turnover tax rate, and threshold). Given private behavior, social welfare is optimized. We interpret the first-order conditions for welfare maximization to identify the key margins and then simulate a calibrated version of the model.
International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Abstract

Alors que le débat sur le rôle joué par le FMI auprès des pays à faible revenu se poursuit, le Bureau indépendant d’évaluation (BIE) a entrepris d’examiner les modalités et l’efficacité de l’aide que l’institution apporte à l’Afrique subsaharienne. Ce rapport s'intéresse plus particulièrement aux politiques conduites et aux pratiques suivies par le FMI dans les opérations appuyées par la facilité pour la réduction de la pauvreté et pour la croissance (FRPC), principal canal du travail opérationnel de l’institution dans les pays à faible revenu entre 1999 et 2005. Le rapport formule également des recommandations pour accroître la cohérence — tant réelle que perçue — des politiques et activités de l’institution liées à l’aide à l’Afrique subsaharienne.

International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Abstract

This independent evaluation of the IMF’s role and performance in the determination and use of aid to low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa is presented at a ground-level view. Country performance has improved in many sub-Saharan Africa countries over the period, and the report details the role of the IMF’s programs, as well as perceptions of that role. The report is an important contribution to following through on the IMF’s commitment to its Poverty Reduction Strategy and makes three main recommendations for improving the coherence—actual and perceived—of the IMF’s policies and actions relating to aid to sub-Saharan Africa going forward.

International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Abstract

This independent evaluation of the IMF’s role and performance in the determination and use of aid to low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa is presented at a ground-level view. Country performance has improved in many sub-Saharan Africa countries over the period, and the report details the role of the IMF’s programs, as well as perceptions of that role. The report is an important contribution to following through on the IMF’s commitment to its Poverty Reduction Strategy and makes three main recommendations for improving the coherence—actual and perceived—of the IMF’s policies and actions relating to aid to sub-Saharan Africa going forward.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
International Monetary Fund
This Joint Staff Advisory Note examines Congo’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRSP). The I-PRSP recognizes the lack of recent and good quality data on poverty, and recommends new surveys and studies to improve poverty assessment and analysis. On the basis of the sparsely available data, the I-PRSP estimates that at least 50 percent of the population is poor. The I-PRSP also links the high poverty incidence to a significant decline in per capita output and the deterioration of basic social services.