This paper analyzes asymmetries in direct investment positions reported in the
Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS) following a top down approach.
First, it examines asymmetries at global level; second, it examines asymmetries between
CDIS reported and derived data for individual economies; and third, the paper analyzes
data at bilateral economy level.
Then, the paper explores seven main reasons for asymmetries, including those arising
even when economies follow international standards.
Finally, the paper includes a section on addressing bilateral asymmetries and concludes
with specific planned actions to reduce asymmetries, including initiatives led by
This paper examines some dimensions of the problem of income inequality. The conventional approach to income inequality is to define the problem in purely relative terms. A familiar technique for this purpose is to measure inequality by the extent to which the income share of groups of individuals or households differs from their population share. The paper examines the problem in terms of income shares of the lowest 40 percent, the middle 40 percent, and the top 20 percent of households ordinally ranked by income.