Mr. Johannes Herderschee, Ran Li, Abdoulaye Ouedraogo, and Ms. Luisa Zanforlin
Whereas most of the literature related to the so-called “resource curse” tends to emphasize on institutional factors and public policies, in this research we focus on the role of the financial sector, which has been surprisingly overlooked. We find that countries that have financial systems with more depth, as well as those that actively manage their central banks’ balance sheets experience less exchange-rate appreciation than countries that do not. We analyze the relationship between these two findings and suggest that they appear to follow separate mechanisms.
Ms. Ritu Basu, Mr. Ananthakrishnan Prasad, and Mr. Sergio L. Rodriguez
The assessment provides evidence of market segmentation across Islamic and conventional banks in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), leading to excess liquidity, and an uneven playing field for Islamic banks that might affect their growth. Liquidiy management has been a long-standing concern in the global Islamic finance industry as there is a general lack of Shari’ah compliant instruments than can serve as high-quality short-term liquid assets. The degree of segmentation and bank behavior varies across countries depending on Shari’ah permissibility and the availability of Shari’ah-compliant instruments. A partial response would be to support efforts to build Islamic liquid interbank and money markets, which are crucial for monetary policy transmission through the Islamic financial system.This can be achieved, to a large extent, by deepening Islamic government securities and developing Shari’ah-compliant money market instruments.
Mr. Mumtaz Hussain, Asghar Shahmoradi, and Rima Turk
Islamic finance has started to grow in international finance across the globe, with some
concentration in few countries. Nearly 20 percent annual growth of Islamic finance in recent
years seems to point to its resilience and broad appeal, partly owing to principles that govern
Islamic financial activities, including equity, participation, and ownership. In theory, Islamic
finance is resilient to shocks because of its emphasis on risk sharing, limits on excessive risk
taking, and strong link to real activities. Empirical evidence on the stability of Islamic banks,
however, is so far mixed. While these banks face similar risks as conventional banks do, they
are also exposed to idiosyncratic risks, necessitating a tailoring of current risk management
practices. The macroeconomic policy implications of the rapid expansion of Islamic finance
are far reaching and need careful considerations.
Over the past decade, Indonesia has developed into an important regional and global economy, as well as an active participant in the G20. The chapters in this book document the substantial improvements in the quality of macroeconomic policy that Indonesia has achieved, while also clearly laying out an agenda of measures that should be taken to safeguard these gains and further lower vulnerabilities going forward. Rather than just demonstrating progress in key macroeconomic indicators, the contributors have delved into the ways that global volatility, especially since 2008, has affected Indonesia and how that country has adjusted its policies to meet the new challenges.
This paper documents trends in movement and composition of capital flows into India in a comparative perspective, examines the impact of these flows upon key macroeconomic variables in the economy, and dwells on implications for economic policy. We find that an inflow of foreign capital results in a real appreciation and has a significant impact on domestic money supply. During a capital surge, these effects have been countered through intervention and sterilization. The paper concludes with a discussion on the costs of these policies in the event of a heavy inflow of foreign capital into India.
This paper addresses the important question of how far a government will run down its stock of foreign reserves in a defense of a fixed exchange rate. An optimizing model of currency crisis is presented in which the decision of whether or not to borrow in a defense of a peg is explicitly analyzed. The threshold level of reserves is then determined endogenously and shown to be a function of fundamental economic variables. The analysis also demonstrates how an increase in the level of reserves, a credit-rating upgrade, or the imposition of capital controls can remove the multiplicity of equilibria.
This paper outlines the recent progress in developing Islamic financial instruments for the management of monetary policy and public borrowing requirements and provides details on new instruments currently being developed in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Sudan. The paper also touches on the institutional arrangements for interbank market operations and the design of effective central bank credit facilities that are needed under Islamic banking to support the development and operation of these new instruments.
Many countries have reformed their monetary instruments over the last few years. Edited by Tomas J.T. Balino and Lorena M. Zamalloa, this volume deals with the design, implementation, and coordination of major monetary policy instruments, highlighting relevant country experiences. In particular, it discusses how to adapt those instruments to the financial environment as well as how to help this environment to develop.
Mr. Hassanali Mehran, Mr. Marc G Quintyn, and Mr. Bernard J Laurens
This book by Hassanali Mehran, Bernard Laurens, and Marc Quintyn brings together the papers presented at a seminar held in Beijing, China, in August 1995 and sponsored jointly by the IMF's Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department and the Poeple's Bank of China. The papers were written by central bankers from China, Italy, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Turkey. The Chinese authorities were specifically interested in learning more about the Italian and Turkish models of interbank markets and in the experiences of neighboring Asian countries with interest rate liberalization. The U.S. experience was also presented, and the introduction to the book draws policy lessons from the experiences presented at the seminar.
As developing countries and economies in transition have relied on deregulated, competitive markets to spur growth, their central banks have shifted toward using open market operations as a tool of monetary policy. To be most effective, such operations require supportive changes in other policy instruments (reserve requirements, discount window), a competitive banking system and securities market, and adaptation of particular open market or market-type instruments used to the stage of, and potential for, market development. The paper assesses options available to a central bank for encouraging a competitive market architecture and designing instruments for implementation of open market operations.