This paper explores the role for specific structural distortions in explaining Mexico’s weak productivity growth through the resource misallocation channel. The paper makes two contributions. First, we validate the approach of measuring misallocation indirectly (Hsieh and Klenow, 2009) by illustrating a close correlation between misallocation and per capita incomes across Mexican states. Second, we exploit the large variation in resource misallocation within industries and across states together with unusually rich data at the firm, local, and industry level to shed light on its determinants. We identify several well-defined distortions that have a statistically and economically meaningful effect on productivity via resource misallocation.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept., International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept., International Monetary Fund. Research Dept., International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, and Review Department
This paper proposes the adoption of a framework that would supplement the 1997 Fund’s Guidance Note on the Role of the Fund in Governance Issues, adopted by the Executive Board (the “1997 Governance Policy”). While the 1997 Governance Policy remains an appropriate basis for the Fund’s work in this area, further guidance from the Executive Board is needed to ensure that the objectives of that policy are achieved. Experience over the past 20 years has underscored the critical impact that governance issues can have on the Fund’s work. In particular, there is evidence that corruption can have a pernicious effect on a country’s ability to achieve sustainable, inclusive economic growth. As requested by the Executive Board, the proposed Framework for Enhanced Engagement by the Fund (“Framework for Enhanced Fund Engagement”) is designed to promote more systematic, effective, and candid engagement with member countries regarding those governance vulnerabilities, including corruption, that are judged to be macroeconomically critical. Perhaps most importantly, the application of the Framework for Enhanced Fund Engagement to all members on a systematic basis will enhance evenhandedness. Finally, the Framework is designed to strengthen the global fight against corruption by promoting governmental measures that prevent private actors from offering bribes or providing services that enable the proceeds of corrupt acts to be concealed, particularly in the transnational context.
This report evaluates the observance of standards and codes on Financial Action Task Force recommendations for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) in Mexico. Mexico has a mature AML/CFT regime, with a correspondingly well-developed legal and institutional framework. The financial sector demonstrates a good understanding of the primary money laundering threats from organized crime groups and associated criminal activities as well as tax crimes, but the recognition of corruption as a main threat is uneven. Mexico also has a solid legal and institutional framework in place to seek and provide mutual legal assistance and extradition. The authorities also frequently rely on other forms of international cooperation to exchange information with other countries.
This report provides a summary of the anti-money laundering/combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) measures in place in Mexico. Mexico has a mature AML/CFT regime, with a correspondingly well-developed legal and institutional framework. Most of the key authorities have a good understanding of money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing risks, and there is generally good policy cooperation and coordination. The financial sector demonstrates a good understanding of the primary ML threats from organized crime groups and associated criminal activities as well as tax crimes, but the recognition of corruption as a main threat is uneven. Financial intelligence and other relevant information are made available by the financial intelligence unit and accessed on a regular basis by competent authorities.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights the Mexican economy’s resilience in the face of a complex external environment. Output has continued to grow at a moderate pace while inflation has temporarily risen above the central bank’s target. The flexible exchange rate is playing a key role in helping the economy adjust to external shocks. The economy is projected to grow by 2.1 percent in 2017. Private consumption remains the main driver of activity, supported by manufacturing exports, while investment has remained weak amid uncertainty about Mexico’s future trade relationship with the United States. Growth is expected to slow slightly in 2018 before picking up speed as the uncertainty is resolved.
This paper seeks to contribute to the unresolved issue of the effect of economic integration on environmental policy. In particular, we discuss the joint impact of trade openness and political uncertainty. Our theory predicts that the effect of trade integreation on the environment is conditional on the degree of political uncertainty. Trade integration raises the stringency of environmental policies, but the effect is reduced when the degree of political uncertainty is great. Political uncertainty has a positive effect on environmental policy as it reduces lobbying efforts. Applying our model to a unique data set of primarily developing countries, the empirical findings support the theory and are robust under alterntive specifications.