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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Assistance Report discusses technical advice and recommendations given by the IMF mission to the authorities of Montenegro regarding establishment of a macroprudential policy framework. The macroprudential policy mandate should rest with the Central Bank of Montenegro, with enhanced accountability, given its financial stability mandate and systemic risk analytical capacity. The mandate should be explicitly spelled out in a single published document that sets out a policy framework with clear objectives and specific indicators and instruments. Accountability for macroprudential policy decisions should also be strengthened.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The main objective of this technical note is to assess bank’s balance sheet and profits, solvency stress test, and liquidity stress test. The financial system in Montenegro is dominated by the banking sector. By the end of 2014, 12 licensed banks operated in Montenegro, with total banking sector assets amounting to 3.1 billion euros or 88 percent of total financial system assets and 92 percent of GDP. The stress-testing exercise is aimed to test the banking system’s resilience to extreme but plausible shocks. The stress test is a tool to assess the vulnerabilities of the banking system that may expose it to risks.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept. and International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Slovenian financial system has been hard hit by the crisis. Banks remained highly vulnerable to continued credit deterioration and refinancing risks. Strengthening of financial condition of banks should be the short-term priority. The financial restructuring should be followed by privatization of state-controlled banks. The supervision of financial institutions should be complemented with a macroprudential overview geared toward overall stability of the financial system. The crisis preparedness and management framework should be improved, and risks to systemic financial stability should be identified.
International Monetary Fund
Montenegro is undergoing rapid credit growth in the context of heavy foreign bank presence and euro use. However, the rate of credit expansion is testing the limits of banks’ capacity to underwrite loans prudently and maintain adequate buffers. Rapid credit growth is now also posing supervisory challenges, despite relatively strong financial sector regulation and supervision. The recommended policy response is a mix of prudential strengthening required to address risks emanating from rapid credit growth, and measures to address specific vulnerabilities.
Mr. Robert C. Effros


This volume, edited by Robert C. Effros, focuses on how technology is affecting the world of banking and finance in an era of increasing globalization. The advent of electronic money, stored value cards, and internet transactions are discussed, as well as the impact of technology on cross-border banking and its implications for central banks. Other issues examined are the legal and regulatory frameworks for risk management of banks, sovereign debt, the international laws of bank secrecy, and financial services within the context of the GATT Agreement on Trade Services.