The Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) is the cenerpiece of the International Monetary Fund's strategy to provide assistance on concessional terms to low-income member countries that are undertaking important macroeconomic adjustment and stuctural reforms. By February 1999, a total of SDR 7 billion (about US$9 billion) had been distributed under 79 ESAF arrangements to 51 developing countries. Edited by Hugh Bredenkamp and Susan Schadler, this volume features internal IMF staff assessments of the ESAF and provides an historical account of policies implemented and outcomes achieved under ESAF- supported programs.
In recent years, observers have called on the IMF to pay closer attention to certain issues that do not fall directly within its mandate, such as the environment. This booklet reviews IMF's approach to environmental issues and when and how the IMF integrates environmental concerns into its work.