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Mr. Chi D Pham, Mr. Ajai Chopra, Mr. John R Dodsworth, and Mr. Hisanobu Shishido
This paper examines stabilization policies in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos since the late 1980s. Compared with other transition economies, the Indochinese countries avoided an output collapse and moved quickly to strong GDP growth and low inflation. Each adopted a similar mix of policies centered on flexible exchange rates, high real interest rates, fiscal adjustment through expenditure cuts, and the imposition of hard budget constraints on public enterprises. In none of the countries was an exchange rate anchor considered feasible, and money-based stabilization proved effective, despite evident instability in the demand for money.
International Monetary Fund


This paper presents an overview of the economy of Hungary. The paper highlights that during the Fifth Five-Year Plan (1976–80), actual growth rates for almost all major plan aggregates remained below the targets. The lower targets set for the increase in both consumption and investment in the 1976–80 plan relative to the rates achieved during 1971–75, reflected the government’s policy of moderating the growth of domestic demand. The actual average annual growth rate for investment closely approximated, whereas that of private consumption fell far short of the plan targets.