International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Selected Issues paper conducts a review of taxes on labor in Kazakhstan, which, despite the current relatively low level of collections, have the potential to become an important source of non-oil fiscal revenue. This paper focuses on one group of non-oil taxes, personal income tax and other taxes on labor, and reviews their effective burden, progressivity, and efficiency. These taxes are found to have limited responsiveness to oil-sector fluctuations, and thus help enhance the resilience of public finance to oil shocks. The existing labor tax system is characterized by a low, flat headline rate, limited progressivity except at the lower end of household income distribution due to deduction of the minimum wage, and a relatively high tax burden mainly born by the formal sector. Having a more equitable and efficient labor tax system would involve a targeted strategy for deductions and exemptions, expanding the tax base, and continuing to improve tax design, administration, and collection enforcement.
At the time of the 2005 review of the Fund’s transparency policy, it was agreed that information on key trends in implementation of the transparency policy would be circulated to the Board regularly, along with lists indicating the publication status of reports discussed by the Board. The set of tables provided in this report updates the last Key Trends2 with information on documents published through December 2009.
This technical note describes need of conceptual design as a critical element of a government financial management information system project. Governments are increasingly turning to computerized financial management systems to help them respond to the demand for better information. This note describes the conceptual design for government financial management information systems (GFMIS), and explains why is it critical to the success of a GFMIS project. Key factors that influence the preparation of the conceptual design are discussed. The main stakeholders in the preparation of the conceptual design are also elaborated.
The data quality assessment shows that Kazakhstan is in observance of the Special Data Dissemination Standard, meeting the specifications for coverage, periodicity, timeliness, and the dissemination of advance release calendars. Executive Directors have suggested a set of recommendations that are designed to further increase Kazakhstan’s adherence to internationally accepted statistical practices and enhance the analytical usefulness of Kazakhstan’s statistics. Cross-cutting recommendations, national accounts, consumer and producer price indices, government finance statistics, monetary statistics, and balance of payments statistics were reviewed for the recommendations.
This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that Kazakhstan’s economy continues to expand rapidly, with average real growth of more than 10 percent over the past three years, and an estimated 9.1 percent in the first quarter of 2004. Economic growth has been driven by increasing oil production, supported by high oil prices and rising foreign investments. Structural reforms are well advanced compared with other countries in the region, but the implementation of the reform agenda has slowed somewhat since 2000.
This report assesses the Observance of Standards and Codes on Fiscal Transparency for the Republic of Kazakhstan. The fiscal reporting and dissemination of information in Kazakhstan has already achieved a sound level of practice, and can be built upon with relatively little further effort. Promising work has also begun in establishing a disciplined medium-term budget framework. Such a framework will be essential to enable policy proposals to be appraised in light of their long-term costs, which is of central importance in linking development programs to recurrent costs and in examining social security trends.
Kazakhstan’s government has established a comprehensive and efficient treasury system for government revenues and expenditures, and introduced a state-of-the-art government financial management information system. Kazakhstan is among the leading BRO (Baltics, Russia, and other Former Soviet Union) countries in modernizing its budget execution system despite remaining challenges in other areas of fiscal management. The successful outcomes are related partly to the high quality of the reform process, and partly to the institutional design of the Kazakh treasury. Some design features are common for most well-functioning treasuries. Other features are related to the specific economic factors, institutional features, and financial management objectives of a transition economy, with a strong emphasis on fiscal control and financial discipline.
This paper reviews lessons learned for future technical assistance work in the hope that they will highlight the problems faced when introducing institutional changes in transitional economies. The findings from the assessment are intended principally for those interested in the development of these transition economies, but should also be of wider relevance to those involved in delivering technical assistance on public sector institutional reform. The assessment follows the standard approach to such evaluation work. It first considers whether the basic goal of setting up treasuries has been achieved and whether the resultant reforms are relevant and sustainable. A more marked improvement in public expenditure and fiscal management was, however, also seriously hindered by the hostile macroeconomic environment of perennial crisis. The IMF is now preparing an illustrative standard for budget preparation, based on the Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency, for the countries discussed in this paper.
Mr. Jeffrey M. Davis, Mr. Thomas J Richardson, Mr. Rolando Ossowski, and Mr. Steven A Barnett
Privatization has been a key element of structural reform in many developing and transition economies during the last decade. This paper examines the fiscal and macroeconomic issues involved in the privatization of nonfinancial public enterprises in these economies. It considers issues such as the factors determining the proceeds from privatization and the amount accruing to the budget, the uses of proceeds, the impact of privatization on the budget and macroeconomic aggregates, and the privatization component of IMF-supported programs. The empirical evidence draws on case study countries that reflect geographical diversity and are representative of a range of privatization experience in developing and transition economies.