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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
El Gobierno de Chile ha anunciado que está comprometido a alcanzar su meta fiscal y contener el crecimiento del gasto. El objetivo de la meta fiscal es reducir el déficit estructural en 0,2% del PIB en cada año del mandato presidencial (2018-2021). A fin de alcanzar esa meta, el Gobierno anunció un plan de consolidación cuatrienal para reducir gradualmente el gasto anual, en aproximadamente US$1.100 millones, para lograr un ahorro total de US$4.400 millones durante el período1. El Gobierno ha alcanzado la meta que había fijado para el balance estructural de 2018. Con el objetivo de facilitar la consecución de estas metas en los próximos años, y liberar espacio fiscal para el programa del Presidente, el Gobierno está adoptando una nueva herramienta: las revisiones del gasto (RGs).
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This technical assistance report on Chile focuses on introducing and institutionalizing spending reviews (SR). The Chilean government has announced its commitment to achieving its fiscal target and containing expenditure growth. This report proposes a SR framework with targeted reviews conducted on an annual rolling basis, combined with a periodic comprehensive review at most once every four years. Both types of reviews include targets to identify savings options. Targeted reviews focus on a limited predefined review topic or area and on value for money and efficiency. Comprehensive reviews do not have any predefined review topics; they undertake an unconstrained search for the best saving options. The report sets out a four-stage process for conducting an SR, which would start in September and have final saving decisions made in April or May of the following year. The government will need to announce the topic for the first full targeted review to Congress in September 2019. This review will be conducted in late 2019 and early 2020; the results will be ready in April 2020 in time for incorporation into the process for the 2021 budget.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Denmark’s public expenditure as a share of GDP is the highest in the OECD. The main difference between Denmark and the median OECD country is the larger amount of social protection expenditure. The public health expenditure of Denmark is the second highest in the OECD. Following years of strong public capital accumulation in facilities as well as in training, education, and research, Denmark’s expenditure on public investment is now low. The composition of Denmark’s expenditures is broadly in line with the high expenditure countries.
Mr. Marc G Quintyn and Sophia Gollwitzer
This paper tests the theoretical framework developed by North, Wallis and Weingast (2009) on the transition from closed to open access societies. They posit that societies need to go through three doorsteps: (i) the establishment of rule of law among elites; (ii) the adoption of perpetually existing organizations; and (iii) the political control of the military. We identify indicators reflecting these doorsteps and graphically test the correlation between them and a set of political and economic variables. Finally, through Identification through Heteroskedasticity we test these relationships econometrically. The paper broadly confirms the logic behind the doorsteps as necessary steps in the transition to open access societies. The doorsteps influence economic and political processes, as well as each other, with varying intensity. We also identify income inequality as a potentially important force leading to social change.
Mr. Todd D. Mattina and Ms. Victoria Gunnarsson
This paper assesses the relative efficiency and flexibility of public spending in Slovenia compared to the advanced and new EU member states. Spending on health care, education, and social protection is relatively high in Slovenia without achieving correspondingly better outcomes. Inefficiencies appear to stem from the financing mechanisms for social services, institutional arrangements, and the weak targeting of social benefits. In addition, the composition of spending appears to be strongly tilted towards nondiscretionary items that reduce the fiscal room for maneuver. Greater flexibility is needed to facilitate the reallocation of relatively inefficient expenditure into higher priorities. In this manner, medium-term expenditure rationalization can focus on reducing inefficient outlays rather than restraining traditionally flexible components of the budget, such as public investment.
International Monetary Fund
Denmark showed strong performance owing to its stability-oriented policies, high growth rates, and low unemployment. Executive Directors noted that the Danish flexicurity model has worked well, and stressed the need for prudent fiscal policies. Executive Directors welcomed the outcome of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), which found the Danish financial system to be healthy and well supervised. They underscored the importance of strengthening the budget, its stress-testing capacity and cross-border supervision, welcomed the fixed-exchange rate policy, and agreed that with the Welfare Agreement, the Danish economy can face future challenges.
International Monetary Fund
The Selected Issues paper analyzes tax policy trends at the local level in Sweden and assesses the effectiveness of the vertical fiscal policy coordination system. The study reviews Sweden’s local public finances from an international perspective and empirically explores various explanations for the gradual increase in local tax rates. It discusses long-term challenges for local public finances and aggregate fiscal policy coordination. The design of vertical fiscal policy coordination in other countries is described. The paper also examines the Swedish experience of work absence in a European context.
International Monetary Fund
The staff report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation on Denmark focuses on economic developments and policies. Labor market reforms led to a sustained increase in structural employment, while careful fiscal policy in the context of a clear medium-term sustainability strategy delivered budget surpluses and a steady decline in government debt as a share of GDP. Fiscal policy in Denmark is based on a medium-term strategy to accommodate the pressures from an aging population while maintaining the welfare state without increasing taxes.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper highlights that over the past decade, the Netherlands has undergone a remarkable fiscal adjustment, with the deficit, the tax burden, and the expenditure-to-GDP ratio falling significantly. The switch from a deficit-target-based to an expenditure-target-based fiscal framework in 1994 and commitments to two successive four-year fiscal plans have played an important role. The current multiyear framework expires in 2002, and the Study Group on the Budgetary Margin has produced recommendations for the coming government period.
International Monetary Fund
This 2002 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in Denmark slowed significantly during 2001 as domestic demand weakened and exports were hit by the global economic slowdown. Unemployment remained low and wage growth was somewhat faster than in euro area partner countries. However, price inflation was subdued. Monetary conditions were eased during 2001 as Danish interest rates generally followed those of the European Central Bank downward. The 2002 budget implies a broadly neutral fiscal stance with the surplus projected to remain within the medium-term target of 1.5–2.5 percent of GDP.