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International Monetary Fund


The External Sector Report presents a methodologically consistent assessment of the exchange rates, current accounts, reserves, capital flows, and external balance sheets of the world’s largest economies. The 2018 edition includes an analytical assessment of how trade costs and related policy barriers drive excess global imbalances.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This paper presents Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions focusing on Moldova. Governance in the banking system remains poor and the condition of some large banks is fragile. The budget faces a tight financing situation, and—without corrective measures—the deficit is projected to widen significantly in 2015. Russia’s new restrictions on imports from Moldova are exacerbating the ongoing slowdown in activity, easing inflationary pressures, and weakening export performance. Discussions mainly focused on policies to address the significant risks in the banking sector, return to a path of fiscal consolidation, and boost potential growth and preserve external stability.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

The article is a review on Djibouti’s Extended Credit Facility (ECF) program and the performance of economic development in the program. The ECF program helped Djibouti to maintain macroeconomic stability, and the period underwent a transformation in the Djiboutian economy. The country saw an economic increase, and the banking system boomed. A positive thought of economic growth is projected in 2012, so plans were targeted to pursue fiscal reforms to improve debt sustainability, strengthening the banking sectors. The authorities of the Executive Board expect another program similar to the ECF.


This volume examines how independent evaluation contributes to the legitimacy and effectiveness of the IMF. It describes the evolution and impact of the Independent Evaluation Office ten years after its creation as well as the challenges it has faced. It also incorporates feedback from a wide range of internal and external actors and offers useful insights for international organizations, academics, and other global stakeholders.

International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office


The Independent Evaluation Office’s (IEO) Annual Report 2010 highlights that in FY2010, the IEO expended approximately 95 percent of its budgetary resources. The corresponding underspending (about 5 percent of the budget) resulted from several vacancies for significant periods throughout the year. Staffing developments over the course of FY2010 highlighted the costs of high staff turnover for the IEO’s work. In July 2009, the IEO undertook an assessment of recent staffing experience, the main challenges encountered in recruiting and retaining employees, and the aspects of the IEO’s employment policies that contribute to these difficulties.

Mr. Jonathan David Ostry, Mr. Alessandro Prati, and Mr. Antonio Spilimbergo


This volume examines the impact on economic performance of structural policies-policies that increase the role of market forces and competition in the economy, while maintaining appropriate regulatory frameworks. The results reflect a new dataset covering reforms of domestic product markets, international trade, the domestic financial sector, and the external capital account, in 91 developed and developing countries. Among the key results of this study, the authors find that real and financial reforms (and, in particular, domestic financial liberalization, trade liberalization, and agricultural liberalization) boost income growth. However, growth effects differ significantly across alternative reform sequencing strategies: a trade-before-capital-account strategy achieves better outcomes than the reverse, or even than a "big bang"; also, liberalizing the domestic financial sector together with the external capital account is growth-enhancing, provided the economy is relatively open to international trade. Finally, relatively liberalized domestic financial sectors enhance the economy's resilience, reducing output costs from adverse terms-of-trade and interest-rate shocks; increased credit availability is one of the key mechanisms.

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix for The Gambia underlies that the exchange rate is broadly in line with fundamentals, although data weaknesses and uncertainties prevent a definitive assessment. The Gambia’s current account deficit is higher than economic fundamentals would predict, and a depreciation of 11 percent would be needed to restore sustainability. The external sustainability approach suggests that 4–6 percent depreciation is needed for the current account deficit to be consistent with constant net foreign assets as a share of GDP.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

This last issue for 2005 comprises seven new papers, including a contribution to the journal's occasional Special Data Section about domestic debt markets in Sub-Saharan Africa, and also an in-depth look at the internal job market for entry-level economists at the IMF. The remaining articles cover toics as diverse as: modeling of asset markets, exchange rates in developing countries, international bank claims on Latin America, the effectiveness of "early warning" systems, and the use (by emerging market countries) of the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS).