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Jihad Dagher
Financial crises are traditionally analyzed as purely economic phenomena. The political economy of financial booms and busts remains both under-emphasized and limited to isolated episodes. This paper examines the political economy of financial policy during ten of the most infamous financial booms and busts since the 18th century, and presents consistent evidence of pro-cyclical regulatory policies by governments. Financial booms, and risk-taking during these episodes, were often amplified by political regulatory stimuli, credit subsidies, and an increasing light-touch approach to financial supervision. The regulatory backlash that ensues from financial crises can only be understood in the context of the deep political ramifications of these crises. Post-crisis regulations do not always survive the following boom. The interplay between politics and financial policy over these cycles deserves further attention. History suggests that politics can be the undoing of macro-prudential regulations.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

El ejercicio estuvo marcado por retos difíciles y logros importantes. Para vigorizar el crecimiento moderado durante una etapa de incertidumbre en torno a una situación complicada de la economía mundial, los países miembros del FMI avalaron una estrategia triple de políticas monetarias, fiscales y estructurales para reencauzar la economía mundial por una senda de crecimiento más sólido y seguro. Entre los aspectos destacados de la labor del FMI durante el ejercicio cabe mencionar la entrada en vigor de las reformas del régimen de cuotas y la estructura de gobierno aprobadas en 2010, que incrementan los recursos básicos de las institución y la representatividad de los países; los compromisos para reforzar el apoyo financiero, el asesoramiento sobre políticas, los conocimientos especializados y la capacitación que se brindan a los países en desarrollo de bajo ingreso para ayudarlos a cumplir los Objetivos de Desarrollo sostenible de las Naciones Unidas; los análisis sobre el sistema monetario internacional; la inclusión de la moneda china en la cesta de divisas que conforman el Derecho Especial de Giro; y el asesoramiento en materia de políticas acerca de las repercusiones económicas de la migración masiva de refugiados de Siria y otros estados afectados por conflictos. En el informe anual del FMI, que abarca el período comprendido entre el 1 de mayo de 2015 y el 30 a de abril de 2016, se tratan todos estos temas, así como una amplia gama de cuestiones de políticas abordadas por el Directorio Ejecutivo durante el ejercicio.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The year was marked by difficult challenges and milestone achievements. To reinvigorate modest growth at a time of uncertainty about a complicated global economy, the IMF membership endorsed a three-pronged approach of monetary, fiscal, and structural policies to get the world economy back on a stronger and safer growth track. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included entry into effect of its quota and governance reforms approved in 2010, which increase the Fund’s core resources and make it more representative of the membership; commitments for increased financial support, policy advice, expertise, and training to help low-income developing countries achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals; analysis of the international monetary system; inclusion of the Chinese currency in the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right; and policy advice on the economic repercussions of mass migration of refugees from Syria and other conflict-afflicted states. The IMF Annual Report, which covers the period May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016, discusses all of these issues, plus a wide range of policy matters that the Executive Board addressed during the year.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The year was marked by difficult challenges and milestone achievements. To reinvigorate modest growth at a time of uncertainty about a complicated global economy, the IMF membership endorsed a three-pronged approach of monetary, fiscal, and structural policies to get the world economy back on a stronger and safer growth track. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included entry into effect of its quota and governance reforms approved in 2010, which increase the Fund’s core resources and make it more representative of the membership; commitments for increased financial support, policy advice, expertise, and training to help low-income developing countries achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals; analysis of the international monetary system; inclusion of the Chinese currency in the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right; and policy advice on the economic repercussions of mass migration of refugees from Syria and other conflict-afflicted states. The IMF Annual Report, which covers the period May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016, discusses all of these issues, plus a wide range of policy matters that the Executive Board addressed during the year.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The year was marked by difficult challenges and milestone achievements. To reinvigorate modest growth at a time of uncertainty about a complicated global economy, the IMF membership endorsed a three-pronged approach of monetary, fiscal, and structural policies to get the world economy back on a stronger and safer growth track. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included entry into effect of its quota and governance reforms approved in 2010, which increase the Fund’s core resources and make it more representative of the membership; commitments for increased financial support, policy advice, expertise, and training to help low-income developing countries achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals; analysis of the international monetary system; inclusion of the Chinese currency in the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right; and policy advice on the economic repercussions of mass migration of refugees from Syria and other conflict-afflicted states. The IMF Annual Report, which covers the period May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016, discusses all of these issues, plus a wide range of policy matters that the Executive Board addressed during the year.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The year was marked by difficult challenges and milestone achievements. To reinvigorate modest growth at a time of uncertainty about a complicated global economy, the IMF membership endorsed a three-pronged approach of monetary, fiscal, and structural policies to get the world economy back on a stronger and safer growth track. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included entry into effect of its quota and governance reforms approved in 2010, which increase the Fund’s core resources and make it more representative of the membership; commitments for increased financial support, policy advice, expertise, and training to help low-income developing countries achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals; analysis of the international monetary system; inclusion of the Chinese currency in the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right; and policy advice on the economic repercussions of mass migration of refugees from Syria and other conflict-afflicted states. The IMF Annual Report, which covers the period May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016, discusses all of these issues, plus a wide range of policy matters that the Executive Board addressed during the year.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The year was marked by difficult challenges and milestone achievements. To reinvigorate modest growth at a time of uncertainty about a complicated global economy, the IMF membership endorsed a three-pronged approach of monetary, fiscal, and structural policies to get the world economy back on a stronger and safer growth track. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included entry into effect of its quota and governance reforms approved in 2010, which increase the Fund’s core resources and make it more representative of the membership; commitments for increased financial support, policy advice, expertise, and training to help low-income developing countries achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals; analysis of the international monetary system; inclusion of the Chinese currency in the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right; and policy advice on the economic repercussions of mass migration of refugees from Syria and other conflict-afflicted states. The IMF Annual Report, which covers the period May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016, discusses all of these issues, plus a wide range of policy matters that the Executive Board addressed during the year.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Cette année a été caractérisée par d'importants défis et des réalisations à marquer d'une pierre blanche. Pour donner un coup de fouet à une croissance modeste alors que l'incertitude règne face à la complexité de l'économie mondiale, les membres du FMI ont avalisé une approche triple axée sur des politiques monétaires, budgétaires et structurelles visant à replacer l'économie mondiale sur une trajectoire de croissance plus robuste et plus sûre. Parmi les activités du FMI au cours de l'année écoulée, citons l'entrée en vigueur des réformes des quotes-parts et de la gouvernance approuvées en 2010, qui augmentent les ressources du FMI et améliorent la représentativité de ses membres ; les engagements à renforcer l'aide financière, les recommandations de politique générale, l'expertise et la formation en faveur des pays en développement à faible revenu afin de les aider à réaliser les objectifs de développement durable des Nations unies ; une analyse du système monétaire international ; l'intégration de la monnaie chinoise dans le panier de monnaies constituant le droit de tirage spécial ; et des recommandations de politique publique sur les répercussions économiques des migrations massives de réfugiés en provenance de la Syrie et d'autres pays touchés par des conflits. Le rapport annuel du FMI, qui couvre la période du 1er mai 2015 au 30 avril 2016, examine toutes ces questions ainsi qu'une grande variété de thèmes abordés par le conseil d'administration au cours de l'exercice.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The year was marked by difficult challenges and milestone achievements. To reinvigorate modest growth at a time of uncertainty about a complicated global economy, the IMF membership endorsed a three-pronged approach of monetary, fiscal, and structural policies to get the world economy back on a stronger and safer growth track. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included entry into effect of its quota and governance reforms approved in 2010, which increase the Fund’s core resources and make it more representative of the membership; commitments for increased financial support, policy advice, expertise, and training to help low-income developing countries achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals; analysis of the international monetary system; inclusion of the Chinese currency in the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right; and policy advice on the economic repercussions of mass migration of refugees from Syria and other conflict-afflicted states. The IMF Annual Report, which covers the period May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016, discusses all of these issues, plus a wide range of policy matters that the Executive Board addressed during the year.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper discusses how Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) stress test assesses the resilience of the banking sector as a whole rather than the capital adequacy of individual institutions. The FSAP approach to stress testing is essentially macroprudential: it focuses on resilience of the broader financial system to adverse macro-financial conditions rather than on resilience of individual banks to specific shocks. This test ensures consistency in macroeconomic scenarios and metrics across firms to facilitate the assessment of the banking system as a whole. The stress test analysis is intended to help country authorities to identify key sources of systemic risk in the banking sector and inform macroprudential policies to enhance its resilience to absorb shocks.