Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for :

  • Type: Journal Issue x
  • United Kingdom x
  • Asia and Pacific x
  • Banks and Banking x
  • Western Hemisphere x
  • Finance: General x
Clear All Modify Search
Jihad Dagher
Financial crises are traditionally analyzed as purely economic phenomena. The political economy of financial booms and busts remains both under-emphasized and limited to isolated episodes. This paper examines the political economy of financial policy during ten of the most infamous financial booms and busts since the 18th century, and presents consistent evidence of pro-cyclical regulatory policies by governments. Financial booms, and risk-taking during these episodes, were often amplified by political regulatory stimuli, credit subsidies, and an increasing light-touch approach to financial supervision. The regulatory backlash that ensues from financial crises can only be understood in the context of the deep political ramifications of these crises. Post-crisis regulations do not always survive the following boom. The interplay between politics and financial policy over these cycles deserves further attention. History suggests that politics can be the undoing of macro-prudential regulations.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The year was marked by difficult challenges and milestone achievements. To reinvigorate modest growth at a time of uncertainty about a complicated global economy, the IMF membership endorsed a three-pronged approach of monetary, fiscal, and structural policies to get the world economy back on a stronger and safer growth track. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included entry into effect of its quota and governance reforms approved in 2010, which increase the Fund’s core resources and make it more representative of the membership; commitments for increased financial support, policy advice, expertise, and training to help low-income developing countries achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals; analysis of the international monetary system; inclusion of the Chinese currency in the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right; and policy advice on the economic repercussions of mass migration of refugees from Syria and other conflict-afflicted states. The IMF Annual Report, which covers the period May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016, discusses all of these issues, plus a wide range of policy matters that the Executive Board addressed during the year.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper discusses how Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) stress test assesses the resilience of the banking sector as a whole rather than the capital adequacy of individual institutions. The FSAP approach to stress testing is essentially macroprudential: it focuses on resilience of the broader financial system to adverse macro-financial conditions rather than on resilience of individual banks to specific shocks. This test ensures consistency in macroeconomic scenarios and metrics across firms to facilitate the assessment of the banking system as a whole. The stress test analysis is intended to help country authorities to identify key sources of systemic risk in the banking sector and inform macroprudential policies to enhance its resilience to absorb shocks.
Mr. Kalin I Tintchev
The unprecedented collapse of international interbank borrowing was a prominent feature of the global financial crisis that started in August 2007. This paper focuses on the drivers of the retrenchment from 32 advanced and emerging banking systems. Using novel risk-weighted indexes the paper examines whether the banking systems’ access to credit was related to their domestic financial soundness and exposure to distressed international counterparties. The empirical findings suggest that both domestic and international risk factors contributed to the decline in international interbank borrowing during the crisis.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
En “Todos para uno: Por qué la desigualdad nos hace perder el equilibrio” se aborda el tema de la desigualdad y las múltiples razones por las cuales es importante. En nuestro artículo central, Branko Milanovic del Banco Mundial explica cómo se mide la desigualdad de ingresos y explica que en la mayoría de los países se ha agudizado esta desigualdad. La buena noticia, señala, es que a escala mundial, es decir, la desigualdad entre los países, posiblemente esté disminuyendo. Los economistas del FMI Andrew Berg y Jonathan Ostry concluyen que una sociedad más igualitaria tiene una mayor probabilidad de sustentar el crecimiento a más largo plazo. En otra investigación del FMI sobre la desigualdad se llega a la conclusión de que el desarrollo del sector financiero no solo “agranda el pastel” al estimular el crecimiento económico sino que también lo divide de manera más pareja; que el aumento de la desigualdad de ingresos en los países desarrollados va asociado a un mayor endeudamiento interno y externo, y que si bien la consolidación fiscal es necesaria en el mediano plazo, si se aprietan los frenos de golpe el empleo y los salarios pueden verse perjudicados, con lo cual se agrava la desigualdad. También en este número presentamos una semblanza de Elinor Ostrom, la primera mujer en recibir el Premio Nobel de Economía. En un recorrido por el mundo indagamos cómo la diáspora africana puede ayudar a la distancia a sus países de origen, tratamos de extraer las primeras lecciones de la crisis de deuda de la zona euro, investigamos cómo Estados Unidos y su vecino Canadá manejan la deuda pública, con diferentes resultados, y analizamos el ascenso de los mercados emergentes como centros comerciales de importancia sistémica. En “Vuelta a lo esencial” se explica la diferencia entre la micro y la macroeconomía, y en un “Vistazo a las cifras” se presenta una nueva encuesta mundial sobre la inversión extranjera directa.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Ce numéro, intitulé « Tout pour un », aborde les inégalités et leurs nombreuses conséquences. Dans notre article principal, Branko Milanovic, de la Banque mondiale, explique comment on mesure les inégalités et montre que celles-ci sont en hausse dans la plupart des pays. Mais la bonne nouvelle est que les inégalités entre pays sont peut-être en baisse. Andrew Berg et Jonathan Ostry, économistes au FMI, notent qu'une société plus égale a plus de chances de maintenir une croissance à plus long terme. D'autres recherches menées par le FMI dans le domaine des inégalités indiquent que, non seulement le développement financier augmente le revenu global en favorisant la croissance économique, mais il le divise aussi plus équitablement ; que les pays développés qui présentent des inégalités de revenus plus importantes présentent également un endettement plus élevé, tant intérieur qu'extérieur ; et que, si l'assainissement des finances publiques s'impose à moyen terme, une politique d'austérité trop précoce peut nuire à l'emploi et aux salaires, exacerbant ainsi les inégalités. Dans ce numéro aussi, nous nous entretenons avec Elinor Ostrom, première femme à recevoir le prix Nobel d'économie. Dans notre tour du monde, nous examinons comment la diaspora africaine peut contribuer à distance au redressement des pays d'origine, nous tentons de tirer les premiers enseignements de la dette de la crise dans la zone euro, nous examinons la façon dont les États-Unis et le Canada, leur voisin, ont géré leur dette publique, avec des résultats différents, et nous nous intéressons à la montée des pays émergents qui deviennent des centres d'échanges commerciaux d'importance mondiale. La rubrique « L’ABC de l’économie » explique la différence entre microéconomie et macroéconomie, et la rubrique « Gros plan » présente une nouvelle enquête mondiale sur les investissements directs étrangers.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
All for One examines inequality and the many ways it matters. In our overview article, the World bank's Branko Milanovic explains how income inequality is measured and tells us that it's increased in most countries. The good news, he says, is that global inequality--between countries--could be on the downturn. IMF economists Andrew Berg and Jonathan Ostry find that a more equal society has a greater likelihood of sustaining longer-term growth. Other IMF research on inequality finds that financial sector development not only 'enlarges the pie' by supporting economic growth but divides it more evenly; that higher income inequality in developed countries is associated with higher indebtedness--at home and abroad; and that while fiscal consolidation is necessary in the medium term, slamming on the brakes too quickly can harm jobs and cut wages, exacerbating inequality. Also in this issue, we profile Elinor Ostrom, the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize for economics. In a tour of the globe, we look at how the African diaspora can help their home countries from afar, try to draw some early lessons from the euro area's debt crisis, investigate how the United States and its neighbor Canada handled public debt--with different results, and find out about the rise of emerging markets as systemically important trading centers. Back to Basics explains the difference between micro- and macroeconomics, and Data Spotlight tells us about a new worldwide survey of foreign direct investment.
International Monetary Fund
In this paper we identify some of the main factors behind systemic risk in a set of international large-scale complex banks using the novel CoVaR approach. We find that short-term wholesale funding is a key determinant in triggering systemic risk episodes. In contrast, we find no evidence that a larger size increases systemic risk within the class of large global banks. We also show that the sensitivity of system-wide risk to an individual bank is asymmetric across episodes of positive and negative asset returns. Since short-term wholesale funding emerges as the most relevant systemic factor, our results support the Basel Committee's proposal to introduce a net stable funding ratio, penalizing excessive exposure to liquidity risk.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
All for One examines inequality and the many ways it matters. In our overview article, the World bank's Branko Milanovic explains how income inequality is measured and tells us that it's increased in most countries. The good news, he says, is that global inequality--between countries--could be on the downturn. IMF economists Andrew Berg and Jonathan Ostry find that a more equal society has a greater likelihood of sustaining longer-term growth. Other IMF research on inequality finds that financial sector development not only 'enlarges the pie' by supporting economic growth but divides it more evenly; that higher income inequality in developed countries is associated with higher indebtedness--at home and abroad; and that while fiscal consolidation is necessary in the medium term, slamming on the brakes too quickly can harm jobs and cut wages, exacerbating inequality. Also in this issue, we profile Elinor Ostrom, the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize for economics. In a tour of the globe, we look at how the African diaspora can help their home countries from afar, try to draw some early lessons from the euro area's debt crisis, investigate how the United States and its neighbor Canada handled public debt--with different results, and find out about the rise of emerging markets as systemically important trading centers. Back to Basics explains the difference between micro- and macroeconomics, and Data Spotlight tells us about a new worldwide survey of foreign direct investment.