With less than five years left to achieve the MDGs, this year's report looks at the prospects and challenges for reaching the goals. It also examines the great diversity of performance across indicators, countries, and categories of countriesto determine the necessary policies to fill the remaining gaps.
The recent financial crisis has given renewed urgency to the need for resolution systems for financial institutions, which both safeguard financial stability and limit moral hazard. However, experience demonstrates that these systems will not be effective unless progress is also made in developing a framework that applies on a cross-border basis. Since many systemically important financial groups operate globally, an uncoordinated application of resolution systems by national authorities will make it much more difficult to both secure the continuity of essential functions (thereby limiting contagion), and ensure that shareholders and creditors bear the financial burden of the resolution process.
This paper responds to the IMFC call to review, in light of the crisis, the Fund’s mandate over macroeconomic and financial sector policies bearing on global stability.
The crisis exposed weaknesses in economic oversight—national, regional, and global—prior to the crisis, prompting major institutional innovations to uncover risks and meet large and diverse financing needs. Despite progress, it still needs to be asked if the mandate in the Fund’s Articles is up to the challenges ahead. The Board’s deliberations, which are far from complete, have prompted it to emphasize practical steps to deliver on the Fund’s broad stability mandate, with any need to amend the Articles reconsidered in light of experience. The effectiveness of these steps will also depend on quota and governance reform, as confidence in the Fund as an impartial overseer of global stability and lender of last resort rests on its legitimacy.
China’s growth performance since the start of economic reforms in 1978 has been impressive, but the gains have not been distributed equally across provinces. We use a nonparametric approach to analyze the variation in labor productivity growth across China’s provinces. This approach imposes less structure on the data than the standard growth accounting framework and allows for a breakdown of labor productivity into efficiency gains, technological progress, and capital deepening. We have the following results. First, we find that on average capital deepening accounts for about 75 percent of total labor productivity growth, while efficiency and technological improvements account for about 7 and 18 percent, respectively. Second, technical change is not neutral. Third, whereas improvement in efficiency contributes to convergence in labor productivity between provinces, technical change contributes to productivity disparity across provinces. Finally, we find that foreign direct investment has a positive and significant effect on efficiency growth and technical progress.
This paper quantifies the magnitude and nature of migration flows from the Caribbean and estimates their costs and benefits. The Caribbean countries have lost 10-40 percent of their labor force due to emigration to OECD member countries. The migration rates are particularly striking for the highskilled. Many countries have lost more than 70 percent of their labor force with more than 12 years of completed schooling-among the highest emigration rates in the world. The region is also the world's largest recipient of remittances as a percent of GDP. Remittances constituted about 13 percent of the region's GDP in 2002. Simple welfare calculations suggest that the losses due to high-skill migration (ceteris paribus) outweigh the official remittances to the Caribbean region. The results suggest that there is indeed some evidence for brain drain from the Caribbean.
This Selected Issues paper on Haiti examines the observed reduction in outstanding real bank credit to the private sector. It examines the evolution of credit and real GDP growth and uses demand and supply indicators to characterize the reduction in credit allocation to the private sector. The paper also provides an overview of the taxation system for the major petroleum products under the present fixed pricing policy and a hypothetical implementation of the 1995 law introducing a flexible pricing mechanism.