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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
It is generally difficult to measure revenue not collected due to noncompliance, but a growing number of countries now regularly produce and publish estimated revenue losses. Good tax gap analysis enables the detection of changes in taxpayer behavior by consistent estimates over time. This Technical Note sets out the theoretical concepts for personal income tax (PIT) gap estimation, the different measurement approaches available, and their implications for the scope and presentation of statistics. The note also focuses on the practical steps for measuring the PIT gap by establishing a random audit program to collect data, and how to scale findings from the sample to the population.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This technical note addresses the following questions: • What are the main ways in which different countries assess and collect personal income tax (PIT) and social insurance contributions (SIC) liabilities (Section I)? • What is the case for transferring responsibility for a country’s SIC collection from its social insurance agency(ies) to its tax authority (Section II)? • What changes does such integration of collection functions involve (Section III)? • Are there any lessons from international experience to guide such reforms (Section IV)? • How to build on these lessons when planning a transfer of collection functions (Section V)? • Are there any beneficial alternatives to full integration of functions (Section VI)?
John Brondolo and Mark Konza
This technical note and manual (TNM) addresses the following questions: (1) What are the main challenges in administering the value-added tax on imported digital services and the measures that countries have introduced to address the challenges?; (2) What are the main challenges in administering the value-added tax on low-value imported goods and the measures that countries have introduced to address the challenges? ;and (3) What are the key tasks in implementing the measures for improving the administration of the value-added tax on imported digital services and low-value imported goods?
Ruud A. de Mooij, Mr. Alexander D Klemm, and Ms. Victoria J Perry


The book describes the difficulties of the current international corporate income tax system. It starts by describing its origins and how changes, such as the development of multinational enterprises and digitalization have created fundamental problems, not foreseen at its inception. These include tax competition—as governments try to attract tax bases through low tax rates or incentives, and profit shifting, as companies avoid tax by reporting profits in jurisdictions with lower tax rates. The book then discusses solutions, including both evolutionary changes to the current system and fundamental reform options. It covers both reform efforts already under way, for example under the Inclusive Framework at the OECD, and potential radical reform ideas developed by academics.

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept. and International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.
Le document Fiscalité des entreprises dans l'économie mondiale insiste sur la nécessité de préserver et de mettre à profit les progrès de la coopération fiscale internationale accomplis ces dernières années qui, sur certains points, sont actuellement menacés. Le document accorde une attention particulière à la situation des pays en développement, et examine plusieurs options envisagées pour que les pays, en particulier les pays à faible revenu, puissent continuer de recouvrer des impôts sur les bénéfices tirés d'activités multinationales.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept. and International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.
El documento «Tributación internacional de empresas» resalta la necesidad de mantener y promover los avances logrados en los últimos años en el terreno de la cooperación internacional sobre cuestiones tributarias, que en algunos sentidos parecen estar ahora sujetos a tensiones. Prestando especial atención a las circunstancias de los países en desarrollo, enumera y analiza distintas opciones en estudio para el sistema de tributación internacional que buscan asegurar que los países —sobre todo los de bajos ingresos— puedan continuar recaudando impuestos sobre las actividades multinacionales de las empresas.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept. and International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.
The policy paper Corporate Taxation in the Global Economy stresses the need to maintain and build on the progress in international cooperation on tax matters that has been achieved in recent years, and in some respects now appears under stress. With special attention to the circumstances of developing countries, the paper identifies and discusses various options currently under discussion for the international tax system to ensure that countries, and in particular low-income countries, can continue to collect corporate tax revenues from multinational activities.
Ruud A. de Mooij and Ms. Li Liu
Unilateral adoption of transfer pricing regulations may have a negative impact on real investment by multinational corporations (MNCs). This paper uses a quasi-experimental research design, exploiting unique panel data on domestic and multinational companies in 27 countries during 2006-2014, to find that MNC affiliates reduce their investment by over 11 percent following the introduction of transfer pricing regulations. There is no significant reduction in total investment by the MNC group, suggesting that these investments are most likely shifted to affiliates in other countries. The impact of transfer pricing regulations corresponds to an increase in the ``TPR-adjusted'' corporate tax rate by almost one quarter.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper describes Uganda’s experience under the 2013 Policy Support Instrument (PSI). The current 2013 PSI was approved by the IMF’s Executive Board in June 2013 with an initial duration of three years. Overall, performance under this PSI has been assessed to be satisfactory. Most quantitative assessment criteria were met, and macroeconomic stability maintained. However, the pace of structural reforms slowed down compared with the past, and only about half of the structural benchmarks were ultimately met. The experience shows the importance of ensuring commitment to the reforms, explaining them better, and getting broad-based buy-in to achieve progress.