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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper discusses Armenia’s Second Review Under the Extended Arrangement and Request for Waivers of Nonobservance and Rephasing. Since late 2014, Armenia’s economic performance has been affected by significantly weaker external conditions, as the slowdown of the Russian economy, the weakening of the ruble, lower metals prices, and the strengthening of the dollar have led to pressures on external receipts, particularly remittances. Performance under the program has come under strain. Three performance criteria (PCs) were missed both at end-December 2014 and end-June 2015. The authorities are requesting waivers of nonobservance for the missed June and continuous PCs. The IMF staff supports completion of the review.
International Monetary Fund
The government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh has requested a three-year Extended Credit Facility (ECF) arrangement with access of 120 percent of quota in support of their reform program. It aims to restore macroeconomic stability, strengthen the external position, and engender higher, more inclusive growth. Under the ECF-supported program, the main components are upfront macro-tightening measures buttressed by greater exchange and interest rate flexibility.
Mr. Arvind Subramanian, Ms. Prachi Mishra, and Aaditya Mattoo
This paper estimates the impact of China's exchange rate changes on exports of competitor countries in third markets, which we call the "spillover effect". We use recent theory to develop an identification strategy in which competition between China and its developing country competitors in specific products and destinations plays a key role. We exploit the variation - afforded by disaggregated trade data - across exporters, importers, product, and time to estimate this spillover effect. We find robust evidence of a statistically and quantitatively significant spillover effect. Our estimates suggest that a 10 percent appreciation of China's real exchange rate boosts on average a developing country's exports of a typical 4-digit HS product category to third markets by about 1.5-2 percent. The magnitude of the spillover effect varies systematically with product characteristics as implied by theory.
Nagwa Riad, Mr. Luca Errico, Christian Henn, Christian Saborowski, Mika Saito, and Mr. Jarkko Turunen
Changing Patterns of Global Trade outlines the factors underlying important shifts in global trade that have occurred in recent decades. The emergence of global supply chains and their increasing role in trade patterns allowed emerging market economies to boost their inputs in high-technology exports and is associated with increased trade interconnectedness.The analysis points to one important trend taking place over the last decade: the emergence of China as a major systemically important trading hub, reflecting not only the size of trade but also the increase in number of its significant trading partners.
International Monetary Fund
Growth performance in Bangladesh is improving, but macroeconomic imbalances have also emerged. Medium-term growth targets are likely to intensify macroeconomic pressures if not managed well. Longer-term growth prospects hinge on generating sufficient resources to relieve infrastructure bottlenecks and ensuring a competitive business environment focused on labor-intensive activities. There is a need to build on the momentum of recent reforms. To ensure a stable macroeconomic environment, vigilance is foremost required on the fiscal front. The focus is on accelerating growth-promoting structural reforms, while ensuring a stable macroeconomic environment.