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Deon Filmer, Roberta Gatti, Halsey Rogers, Mr. Nikola Spatafora, and Drilona Emrullahu
We discuss existing shortfalls and inequalities in the accumulation of human capital—knowledge, skills, and health. We analyze their immediate and systemic causes, and assess the scope for public intervention. The broad policy goals should be to improve: the quality, and not just the quantity, of education and health care; outcomes for disadvantaged groups; and lifelong outcomes. The means to achieve these goals, while maximizing value for money, include: focusing on results rather than just inputs; moving from piecemeal interventions to systemic reform; and adopting a “whole-of-society” approach. Reforms must be underpinned by a robust evidence base.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The contents of this report constitute technical advice provided by the staff of the IMF to the authorities of Nigeria in response to their request for technical assistance. Unlocking the potential of a rapidly growing population requires substantial improvements in human and physical capital. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country and its largest economy. Recognizing challenges, Nigeria has embraced the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda. The Economic Recovery and Growth Plan 2017–2020 gives prominence to economic, social and environmental issues. This report assesses additional spending associated with making substantial progress along the SDGs. The report focuses on critical areas of human and physical capital. For each sector, the report documents progress to date, assesses Nigeria relative to peers, highlights challenges, and estimates the spending to make substantial SDG progress. Nigeria has shown gradual improvements in education. A gradual and strategic approach should be considered given the relatively large additional spending.
Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas
As labor market data is scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this paper uses household survey data to analyze the determinants of the gender gap in the labor market and its welfare implications for five SSA countries in multinomial logit models with propensity score matching method. The analysis confirms that education opens up opportunities for women to escape agricultural feminization and engage in formal wage employment, but these opportunities diminish when women marry—a disadvantage increasingly relevant when countries develop and urbanization progresses. Opening a household enterprise offers women an alternative avenue to escape low-paid jobs in agriculture, but the increase in per capita income is lower than male-owned household enterprises. These findings underline that improving women’s education needs to be supported by measures to allow married women to keep their jobs in the wage sector.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper highlights that Togo’s Strategy for Boosting Growth and Promoting Employment offers a medium-term development framework for implementing the Government’s General Policy Statement, the Millennium Development Goals, and the Government’s vision for making Togo an emerging economy in 15 to 20 years, as well as making it a country that respects human rights and promotes the rule of law. The return of political stability and peace to the country created a favorable environment for better governance, resumption of international assistance, and significant reduction in exterior public debt. The Government’s medium-term economic policy for 2013–2017 will essentially be used to build and consolidate the foundations for Togo’s future economic emergence. The focus will be on new priorities: boosting growth; employment and inclusion; strengthening governance; and reducing regional disparities and promoting grassroots development. Designing a national land-use plan will territorialize development by creating a more balanced national economic space. The new land-use scheme will be based on dynamic, competitive, regional economies in which the urbanization of regional capitals and secondary towns is sufficiently controlled to allow true development hubs to emerge.
Mr. Olumuyiwa S Adedeji, Huancheng Du, and Mr. Maxwell Opoku-Afari
The inclusiveness of growth depends on the extent of access to economic and social opportunities. This paper applies the concept of social opportunity function to ascertain the inclusiveness of growth episodes in selected African countries. Premised on the concept of social welfare function, inclusive growth is associated with increased average opportunities available to the population and improvement in their distribution. The paper establishes that the high growth episodes in the last decade in the selected countries came with increased average opportunities in education and health; but distribution of such opportunities varied across countries, depending on the country-specific policies underpining the growth episodes.
International Monetary Fund
Ghana has pursued several programs to accelerate the growth of the economy. In 1995, the government presented “Ghana: Vision 2020,” aimed at making Ghana a middle-income country in 25 years. Vision 2020 focused on human development, economic growth, rural development, urban development, infrastructure development, and an enabling environment. It was followed by the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. One of the main challenges to economic growth is the unemployment problem. The recent discoveries of oil and gas create tremendous opportunities for stimulating national development.
International Monetary Fund
This volume discusses the Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS I) and the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II) that addressed the critical poverty issues in Ghana. GPRS I is a comprehensive policy document prepared as a precondition for Ghana under the Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Initiative. The main component—human development—targets improvement for Ghana’s population to access basic needs and essential services. A general assessment shows that Ghana has a positive and significantly stabilized macroeconomic environment.