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International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
This paper evaluates the IMF’s policy on the use of quantitative limits on public debt in IMF-supported programs (the “debt limits policy”) and proposes a number of modifications. The review is taking place at a time when many countries are experiencing heightened debt vulnerabilities or actual debt distress, aggravated by the COVID-19 shock, and occurring against the backdrop of a changing credit landscape in which concessional finance is scarcer relative to countries’ investment needs.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & and Review Department
This paper evaluates the IMF’s policy on the use of quantitative limits on public debt in IMF-supported programs (the “debt limits policy”) and proposes a number of modifications. The review is taking place at a time when many countries are experiencing heightened debt vulnerabilities or actual debt distress, aggravated by the COVID-19 shock, and occurring against the backdrop of a changing credit landscape in which concessional finance is scarcer relative to countries’ investment needs.
International Monetary Fund
This paper concludes that the existing framework remains broadly appropriate, but proposes methodological refinements to improve the assessment of market access, clarifies how serious short-term vulnerabilities are assessed, and proposes a modest extension of the transition period before graduation decisions become effective.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, Review Department, and World Bank
Public debt in lower-income economies (LIEs) has risen in recent years, with half of the countries covered in this report now assessed to be at high risk of or already in debt distress.
International Monetary Fund
"This Work Program (WP) translates the strategic directions and policy priorities laid out in the Fall 2018 Global Policy Agenda and the International Monetary and Financial Committee Communiqué into an Executive Board agenda for the next twelve months. Its main policy priorities and deliverables are as follows: • Advise member countries to rebuild buffers, enhance resilience, and advance structural reforms for the benefit of all to respond to mounting vulnerabilities. The Spring 2019 World Economic Outlook (WEO) will analyze the macroeconomic implications of increased corporate market power. The Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) will discuss global financial risks in light of tightening financial conditions, while the Fiscal Monitor (FM) will study how improved governance in fiscal frameworks and institutions can reduce corruption vulnerabilities and improve policy outcomes. • Promote cooperation to modernize the multilateral trade system and address other challenges that transcend borders. The spillover chapter of the Spring 2019 WEO will examine the determinants of trade imbalances and spillovers from different trade policies. Building on the “Bali Fintech Agenda,"" staff will provide a stock-take of fintech developments and study the implications for cross-border flows, financial integrity, and global monetary and financial stability in Fintech: The Experience So Far. To support Japan’s G-20 Presidency, staff will prepare a note on Macroeconomic and Fiscal Implications of Aging. • Adapt the Fund’s policy toolkits to further enhance its surveillance, lending, and capacity development. Scoping notes for the Surveillance Review and the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Review will establish priorities. The Review of Conditionality and the Design of Fund Supported Programs will assess the effectiveness of Fund program design and conditionality. Building on an earlier paper, the Review of Facilities for Low-Income Countries-Reform Proposals will offer proposals on adjusting these facilities to better meet evolving membership needs. The Fund will implement a multipronged approach to enhance debt transparency and sustainable financing practices. Staff will also strengthen debt sustainability analysis by reviewing the Debt Sustainability Framework for Market Access Countries and the Fund’s Debt Limits Policy. The Revised IMF Policies and Practices on Capacity Development will reflect on suggestions made in recent discussions. • Improve governance of the Fund and modernize its operations. Work on the 15thGeneral Review of Quotas will continue with a view to completing it by the Spring Meetings, and no later than the Annual Meetings, of 2019. The Board will receive a briefing on Modernizing HR Policies and Practices: A Progress Report on Key Initiatives and continue the discussions on the Comprehensive Compensation and Benefits Review."
International Monetary Fund
This supplement presents country case studies reviewing country experiences with managing wage bill pressures, which are the basis for the compensation and employment reform lessons identified in the main paper. The selection of countries for the case studies reflects past studies carried out by either the IMF or the World Bank in the context of technical assistance or bilateral surveillance (Table 1). These studies provide important insights into the different sources of wage bill pressures as well as the reform challenges governments have faced when addressing these pressures over the short and medium term. The studies cover 20 countries, including five advanced economies, six countries from sub-Saharan Africa, two countries in developing Asia, one country in the Middle East and North Africa, three countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, and three countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS. The structure of each case study is similar, with each study starting with a presentation of the institutional coverage and framework for setting and managing the wage bill; a description of employment and compensation levels, including their comparison with the private sector; and a discussion of the challenges that motivated the need for reforms and, when applicable, the reforms implemented and lessons derived from these.
International Monetary Fund
This paper examines macroeconomic developments and prospects in low-income developing countries (LIDCs) against the back-drop of a sharp fall in international commodity prices. The focus here—by contrast with IMF (2014a)—is on recent developments and the near-term outlook, recognizing that the new price environment is likely to remain in place for several years to come. The paper also includes a section examining the experience of LIDCs with capital inflows over the past decade.