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Katharina Bergant, Michael Fidora, and Martin Schmitz
We analyse euro area investors' portfolio rebalancing during the ECB's Asset Purchase Programme at the security level. Our empirical analysis shows that euro area investors (in particular investment funds and households) actively rebalanced away from securities targeted under the Public Sector Purchase Programme and other euro-denominated debt securities, towards foreign debt instruments, including `closest substitutes', i.e. certain sovereign debt securities issued by non-euro area advanced countries. This rebalancing was particularly strong during the first six quarters of the programme. Our analysis also reveals marked differences across sectors as well as country groups within the euro area, suggesting that quantitative easing has induced heterogeneous portfolio shifts.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2019 Article IV Consultation discusses that Luxembourg’s growth prospects remain favorable, but downside risks arise from a weaker-than-expected global growth, a disorderly Brexit, changes in international tax rules, and a sharp tightening of global financial conditions. Domestically, rising real estate prices could exacerbate already elevated household indebtedness and increase affordability challenges. Fiscal policy should aim to maintain a strong fiscal position and preserve buffers. The government’s plans, while appropriate, will result in a slightly expansionary budget in 2019. The cost and timeline of the planned measures over the medium term remain to be determined. Given risks ahead, including from potential changes in international taxation, Luxembourg should build on its strong fiscal record and preserve sizeable buffers. Structural policies should focus on addressing key gaps in the economy. Further reforms of the pension system are needed to ensure its sustainability, while considering intergenerational equity and trade-offs of various reform options.
Ms. Yevgeniya Korniyenko, Manasa Patnam, Rita Maria del Rio-Chanon, and Mason A. Porter
This paper studies the interconnectedness of the global financial system and its susceptibility to shocks. A novel multilayer network framework is applied to link debt and equity exposures across countries. Use of this approach—that examines simultaneously multiple channels of transmission and their important higher order effects—shows that ignoring the heterogeneity of financial exposures, and simply aggregating all claims, as often done in other studies, can underestimate the extent and effects of financial contagion.The structure of the global financial network has changed since the global financial crisis, impacted by European bank’s deleveraging and higher corporate debt issuance. Still, we find that the structure of the system and contagion remain similar in that network is highly susceptible to shocks from central countries and those with large financial systems (e.g., the USA and the UK). While, individual European countries (excluding the UK) have relatively low impact on shock propagation, the network is highly susceptible to the shocks from the entire euro area. Another important development is the rising role of the Asian countries and the noticeable increase in network susceptibility to shocks from China and Hong Kong SAR economies.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2018 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economic growth in Luxembourg reached 2.3 percent in 2017, above the European Union average, and was driven by net exports of financial services and private consumption. Growth is projected at 3.5 percent for 2018, with continued strong job creation, and a temporary slowdown in inflation. In 2017, buoyant corporate tax revenues contributed to a fiscal surplus of 1.4 percent of GDP. The full impact of 2016 tax reform, and a continued need for high public investment are expected to result in a small fiscal surplus over the medium-term.
Emma Angulo and Alicia Hierro
This paper analyzes asymmetries in direct investment positions reported in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS) following a top down approach. First, it examines asymmetries at global level; second, it examines asymmetries between CDIS reported and derived data for individual economies; and third, the paper analyzes data at bilateral economy level. Then, the paper explores seven main reasons for asymmetries, including those arising even when economies follow international standards. Finally, the paper includes a section on addressing bilateral asymmetries and concludes with specific planned actions to reduce asymmetries, including initiatives led by international organizations.
Antoine Bouveret
This paper outlines a framework to perform liquidity stress tests for investment funds. Practical aspects related to the calibration of the redemption shock, the measurement of liquidity buffers and the assessment of the resilience of investment funds are discussed. The integration of liquidity stress tests with banking sector stress tests and possible bank-fund interlinkages are also covered.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note reviews the stability of Luxembourg’s financial system. The financial soundness indicators for Luxembourg’s financial system, which plays a key role in the intermediation of financial capital, have remained relatively robust in recent years. Household stress test results suggest that households’ solvency would be significantly affected by a drop in income and housing prices and a rise in unemployment. Bank liquidity displays broad resilience, but would be weakened should wholesale funding dry up or funding stress emerge in foreign currencies. Banks were found to be less vulnerable to direct contagion risk through bilateral exposure; however, most banks have considerable cross-border exposure.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This report assesses the risk management practices of Clearstream Banking Luxembourg (CBL) based on the Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems–International Organization of Securities Commissions (CPSS-IOSCO) Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures. The findings reveal that a range of principles are in broad observance. A key priority is to reduce CBL dependence on commercial banks in its daily operations. There is significant dependence on a limited number of depository and cash correspondent banks, in particular for the US and UK markets. This dependence could be actively mitigated through an increase in the number of contracted banks or, where possible, the establishment of direct links with local central securities depositories and central banks.