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International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, Review Department, International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept., and International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.
2018-19 Review of Facilities for Low-Income Countries---Reform Proposals: Review Of The Financing Of The Fund’s Concessional Assistance And Debt Relief To Low-Income Member Countries
Mr. Bjoern Rother, Ms. Gaelle Pierre, Davide Lombardo, Risto Herrala, Ms. Priscilla Toffano, Mr. Erik Roos, Mr. Allan G Auclair, and Ms. Karina Manasseh
In recent decades, the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) has experienced more frequent and severe conflicts than in any other region of the world, exacting a devastating human toll. The region now faces unprecedented challenges, including the emergence of violent non-state actors, significant destruction, and a refugee crisis bigger than any since World War II. This paper raises awareness of the economic costs of conflicts on the countries directly involved and on their neighbors. It argues that appropriate macroeconomic policies can help mitigate the impact of conflicts in the short term, and that fostering higher and more inclusive growth can help address some of the root causes of conflicts over the long term. The paper also highlights the crucial role of external partners, including the IMF, in helping MENA countries tackle these challenges.
Mr. Harald Finger and Ms. Daniela Gressani
The changing political landscape in the Arab world has created opportunities for economic transformation by tackling long-standing economic issues. Nevertheless, three years after the onset of political transition, implementing necessary economic policies has proven to be challenging. This paper lays out key elements of economic policy reform for Arab countries in transition.
Mr. Harald Finger and Ms. Daniela Gressani

The changing political landscape in the Arab world has created opportunities for economic transformation by tackling long-standing economic issues. Nevertheless, three years after the onset of political transition, implementing necessary economic policies has proven to be challenging. This paper lays out key elements of economic policy reform for Arab countries in transition.

Mr. Harald Finger and Ms. Daniela Gressani
Les mutations du paysage politique dans le monde arabe ouvrent des perspectives pour transformer l'économie en remédiant à des problèmes économiques de longue date. Néanmoins, trois ans après le début de la transition politique dans le monde arabe, force est de constater qu'il a été difficile de gérer les transitions et de mettre en œuvre les réformes économiques nécessaires. Ce document présente des éléments de réformes essentiels dans le domaine de la politique économique pour les pays arabes en transition.
International Monetary Fund
The safeguards policy was introduced in 2000 to reduce the risks of misuse of Fund resources and misreporting of program monetary data to the Fund. It supports the Fund’s approach to prudent lending and complements other safeguards such as program design, conditionality, and access limits, to name a few. Some 242 assessments of 92 central banks have been completed since 2000. Assessments are followed by a period of monitoring for as long as Fund credit is outstanding.
International Monetary Fund
Yemen is confronted with a range of difficult economic challenges. The reduction in oil revenues in the past year has affected the Yemeni economy through a set of direct and indirect channels. The loss of oil revenue contributed to a record fiscal deficit of about 10 percent of GDP in 2009, financed in large part by the central bank. The balance of payments was also put under considerable strain. The identified measures are home-grown and designed to have a long-lasting impact on the structure of the budget.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.