Ms. Yevgeniya Korniyenko, Manasa Patnam, Rita Maria del Rio-Chanon, and Mason A. Porter
This paper studies the interconnectedness of the global financial system and its susceptibility
to shocks. A novel multilayer network framework is applied to link debt and equity
exposures across countries. Use of this approach—that examines simultaneously multiple
channels of transmission and their important higher order effects—shows that ignoring the
heterogeneity of financial exposures, and simply aggregating all claims, as often done in
other studies, can underestimate the extent and effects of financial contagion.The structure of
the global financial network has changed since the global financial crisis, impacted by
European bank’s deleveraging and higher corporate debt issuance. Still, we find that the
structure of the system and contagion remain similar in that network is highly susceptible to
shocks from central countries and those with large financial systems (e.g., the USA and the
UK). While, individual European countries (excluding the UK) have relatively low impact on
shock propagation, the network is highly susceptible to the shocks from the entire euro area.
Another important development is the rising role of the Asian countries and the noticeable
increase in network susceptibility to shocks from China and Hong Kong SAR economies.
Post-crisis dynamics show a shrinkage in the overall amount of crossborder bank lending,
which has been interpreted in the literature as a retreat in financial globalization. In this
paper, we argue that aggregate figures are not sufficient to support such a claim in terms of
the overall structure of the global banking network. Based on a systematic approach to
measuring, mapping and analyzing financial interconnectedness among countries using
network theory, we show that, despite the decline in aggregate lending volumes, the structure
of the network has developed increased connections in some dimensions. Some parts of the
network are currently more interlinked regionally than before the crisis, and less dependent
on major global lenders. In this context, at a more disaggregate level, we document the
characteristics of the increasing regionalization of lending flows, the different evolution of
linkages through bank affiliates and direct cross-border claims, as well as the shift in the
importance of key borrower and lender nodes. These changes in the banking network have
important insights in terms of policy implications since they indicate that the global banking
network has evolved, but it has not undergone a generalized retrenchment in financial
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper assesses the recent trends in The Bahamas’ offshore financial center (OFC) and their contribution to the real economy. The Bahamas hosts one of the largest OFCs in the world. International banks are the most important institutions in the Bahamian OFC. Despite a sharp contraction in the size of the offshore sector, the direct impact on the real economy appears to have been modest. The direct contribution of offshore banks to the real economy appears to have remained broadly stable, reflecting an orderly adjustment so far. Strong compliance with anti–money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism and tax transparency standards should help ensure that this orderly adjustment continues.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Selected Issues paper discusses the designing and implementing of Kuwait’s fiscal policy for the medium term. Fiscal policy has a major role to play in supporting macrostability and diversification. The fiscal strategy design and implementation on a yearly basis are based on a few key areas such as determining targets or ceilings for major fiscal parameters for a three-year rolling framework with binding next budget year and indicative two outer years, establishing a clear process for expressing policy objectives and their link to expenditure, etc. The illustrative budget sequencing with the fiscal strategy spearheading medium-term fiscal policymaking and linked to the annual budget process would support fiscal policy implementation.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper is a detailed assessment of Indonesia’s financial sector—assessment of compliance with the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (BCP) carried out within the framework of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). The Indonesian financial sector comprises banks, multi-finance companies, capital market companies, insurance companies, and pension funds. Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank, is responsible for regulation and supervision of the banking system. The Executive Board recommends effective information exchange arrangements with other financial sector supervisors, and also to bring about amendments to the BI Act.
This note documents and assesses the role of small financial centers in the international financial system using a newly-assembled dataset. It presents estimates of the foreign asset and liability positions for a number of the most important small financial centers, and places these into context by calculating the importance of these locations in the global aggregate of cross-border investment positions. It also reports some information on bilateral cross-border investment patterns, highlighting which countries engage in financial trade with small financial centers.
This paper discusses findings of the assessment of Financial Sector Supervision and Regulation on the Cayman Islands. The assessment reveals that substantial progress has been made in the implementation of the 2003 Offshore Financial Center assessment recommendations, including, importantly, regarding Cayman Islands Monetary Authority’s independence and resources. There is scope for enhancing regulatory reporting and disclosure requirements by financial entities, such as shortening the period for filing required documents and requiring all insurers to disclose their use of derivatives and similar commitments regularly.
This supplement reviews the data received thus far and the progress made by participating jurisdictions in their dissemination efforts. Data for major jurisdictions that declined to participate are also provided where it is available from published sources. In addition, data on a sample of advanced economies are provided for comparative purposes. The framework identified a minimum set of variables for dissemination and recommended that jurisdictions publish data on those variables although jurisdictions could choose to publish more. Tables 2 and 5 to 13 provide the data received on those variables. The framework also identified additional variables that were to be provided to the Fund to help Fund staff monitor developments in financial centers.
This paper reviews key findings of the detailed assessment of the Observance of Standards and Codes in the Financial Sector of the Cayman Islands. Banks in the Cayman Islands operate within a well-defined prudential regulatory framework, generally in accordance with Basel standards, that is, largely modeled after the framework currently in use in the United Kingdom. The two-tiered required minimum risk capital standards are significantly above those required by the Basel Capital Accord and are applied in practice based primarily on the perceived differences in risk related to bank ownership.
This paper highlights key findings of the assessment of financial sector regulation and supervision in the Cayman Islands. The assessment reveals that in the last two years, an extensive program of legislative, rule, and guideline development in the Cayman Islands has introduced an increasingly effective system of regulation, both formalizing earlier practices and introducing enhanced procedures. The implementation of financial regulation and supervision complies broadly with standards in all the areas assessed. However, issues related to resources and potential breaches of operational autonomy affect the regulator and, hence, supervision in all sectors.